30 Comparison between Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

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Quick Comparison between Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

SerialCharacteristicsGram PositiveGram Negative
1Gram stainingStained purple or blue color (color of primary stain, crystal violet)Stained pink or red (Color of counterstain or secondary stain, safranin)
2Thickness of cell wall20-30 nm thick8-12 nm thick.
3Smoothness of cell wallThe cell wall is SmoothThe cell wall is wavy.
4Layer of Peptidoglycancontain multilayered Peptidoglycan, that’s why the cell wall is thicker as compared to gram -vecontain single-layered Peptidoglycan, that’s why the cell wall is less thicker as compared to gram +ve
5Presence of Teichoic AcidsSome Gram-positive bacteria contain Teichoic Acids.Absent
6Presence Periplasmic SpacePeriplasmic Space is absent in gram-positive bacteria.Periplasmic Space is present in gram-negative bacteria.
7Outer MembraneOuter Membrane is absent in gram-positive bacteria.Outer Membraneis present in gram-negative bacteria.
8PorinsPorins are absent in gram-positive bacteria.Porins are present in Outer Membrane
9Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ContentVirtually NoneContain high amount of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
10Lipid and Lipoprotein ContentLow concentration (acid-fast bacteria have lipids linked to peptidoglycan)High concentration (because of the outer membrane)
11MesosomesMesosomes of gram-positive bacteria are Quite ProminentMesosomes of gram-negative bacteria are Less Prominent
12Flagellar StructureFlagellar of gram-positive bacteria contain 2 rings in basal body.Flagellar of gram-negative bacteria contain 4 rings in basal body.
13Toxin ProducedGram-positive bacteria can produce Exotoxins.Gram-negative bacteria can produce both Endotoxins or Exotoxins
14Resistance to Physical DisruptionThe resistance capacity of gram-positive bacteria towards physical disruption is high.The resistance capacity of gram-negative bacteria towards physical disruption is low.
15Cell Wall Disruption by LysozymeThe cell wall of gram-positive bacteria can be disrupted by lysozyme.In case of gram-negative bacteria, to disrupt the cell wall by lysozyme require pretreatment to destabilize outer membrane
16Susceptibility to Penicillin and SulfonamideGram-positive bacteria has a high Susceptibility to Penicillin and SulfonamideGram-negative bacteria has a low Susceptibility to Penicillin and Sulfonamide
17Susceptibility to Streptomycin, Chloramphenicol and TetracyclineThe Susceptibility to Streptomycin, Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline, of gram-positive bacteria, is low.The Susceptibility to Streptomycin, Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline, of gram-negative bacteria, is high.
18Inhibition by Basic DyesProbability is highThe probability is low.
19Susceptibility to Anionic DetergentsProbability is highThe probability is low.
20Susceptibility to Anionic DetergentsProbability is highThe probability is low.
21Resistance to DryingProbability is highThe probability is low.
22MagnetosomesMagnetosomes are Usually absent in gram positive bactera.Magnetosomes are Sometimes found in gram negative bactera.
23Morphologycal characterGram-positive bacteria are usually cocci or spore forming rods. There are some exception such as Lactobacillus and Corynebacterium.gram-negative bacteria are usually non-spore forming rod shpe. There is an exception : Neisseria.
24Endospore formationSome gram-positive bacteria can produce endospores during unfavorable conditions.Usually endospores formation not found in gram-negaitive bacteria.
25PathogenicityThere are few pathogenic bacteria.Most of the gram-negative bacteria are pathogenic.
26Nutritional RequirementsThe Nutritional Requirements of gram-positive bacteria is Relatively Complex.The Nutritional Requirements of gram-negative bacteria is Relatively simple.
27Susceptibility to Anionic DetergentsIn gram-positive bacteria, the Susceptibility to Anionic Detergents is HighIn gram-negative bacteria, the Susceptibility to Anionic Detergents is low.
28Resistance to Sodium Azidegram-positive bacteria are highly resistant to Sodium Azide.gram-negative bacteria has low resistant property againt Sodium Azide.
29Resistance to DryingHighHigh
30ExamplesSome example of gram-positive bacteria are Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Clostridium, Enterococcus, etc.Some example of gram-negative bacteria are Escherichia, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Proteus, Helicobacter, Pseudomonas, etc.

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