Amino Acid Chart

Amino Acid Chart

Amino acids are the building blocks that make up all proteins, polypeptides and peptides. Each amino acid consists of a central carbon, known as the α-carbon, to which an amino group (-NH2), an acidic carboxyl group (-COOH) and an organic side chain (-R group) are bound. The R group, which differs for each amino acid, will determine its structure, polarity and pH.

Aliphatic Amino Acids with Hydrophobic Side Chain

Name3-Letter Symbol1-Letter SymbolFormulaMolecular WeightIsoelectric Point
AlanineALAAC3H7N1O289.096.00
IsoleucineILEIC6H13N1O2131.175.94
LeucineLEULC6H13N1O2131.175.98
ValineVALVC5H11N1O2117.155.96

Aromatic Amino Acids with Hydrophobic Side Chain

Name3-Letter Symbol1-Letter SymbolFormulaMolecular WeightIsoelectric Point
PhenylalaninePHEFC9H11N1O2165.195.48
TryptophanTRPWC11H12N2O2204.235.89
TyrosineTYRYC9H11N1O3181.195.66

Amino Acids with Neutral Side Chain

Name3-Letter Symbol1-Letter SymbolFormulaMolecular WeightIsoelectric Point
AsparagineASNNC4H8N2O3132.125.41
CysteineCYSCC3H7N1O2S1121.165.02
GlutamineGLNQC5H10N2O3146.155.65
MethionineMETMC5H11N1O2S1149.215.74
SerineSERSC3H7N1O3105.095.68
ThreonineTHRTC4H9N1O3119.125.64

Amino Acids with Positive Charged Side Chain

Name3-Letter Symbol1-Letter SymbolFormulaMolecular WeightIsoelectric Point
ArginineARGRC6H14N4O2174.211.15
HistidineHISHC6H9N3O2155.167.47
LysineLYSKC6H14N2O2146.199.59

Amino Acids with Negative Charged Side Chain

Name3-Letter Symbol1-Letter SymbolFormulaMolecular WeightIsoelectric Point
Aspartic AcidASPDC4H7N1O4133.12.77
Glutamic AcidGLUEC5H9N1O4147.133.22

Unique Amino Acids

Name3-Letter Symbol1-Letter SymbolFormulaMolecular WeightIsoelectric Point
GlycineGLYGC2H5N1O275.075.97
ProlinePROPC5H9N1O2115.136.30

Refer to chart below to explore structures, properties and types for each of the 20 standard amino acids.

Amino Acids Structure Abbr (3) Abbr (1) Enzymes Codon Class Hydrophobicity (pH 7) Freq. in Proteins (max. 10) pKa pI Chemical formula Molar mass IUPAC name Other names Appearance Density Melting point Solubility in water
Alanine O O N H H H H H H H Ala A Alanine Aminotransferase GCT, GCC, GCA, GCG Aliphatic 41 7.5 2.34 6.00 C3H7NO2 89.094 Alanine 2-Aminopropanoic acid white powder 1.424 g/cm3 258 °C (496 °F; 531 K) (sublimes) 167.2 g/L (25 °C)
Arginine O O N N N N H H H H H H H H H H H H H H Arg R Arginase CGT, CGC, CGA, CGG, AGA, AGG Basic -14 5.0 2.17 10.76 C6H14N4O2 174.204 (S)-2-Amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid 2-Amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid White crystals 1.5±0.1 g/cm3 260 °C; 500 °F; 533 K 14.87 g/100 mL (20 °C)
Asparagine O O O N N H H H H H H H H Asn N Asparagine Synthetase; Asparaginase AAT, AAC Amidic -28 4.5 2.02 5.41 C4H8N2O3 132.119 Asparagine 2-Amino-3-carbamoylpropanoic acid white crystals 1.543 g/cm3 234 °C (453 °F; 507 K) 2.94 g/100 mL
Aspartic acid O O O O N H H H H H H H Asp D Aspartic Protease; Aspartic Proteinase GAT, GAC Acidic -55 5.0 1.88 2.77 C4H7NO4 133.103 2-Aminobutanedioic acid Aminosuccinic acid; Asparagic acid; Asparagini… colourless crystals 1.7 g/cm3 270 °C (518 °F; 543 K) 4.5 g/L
Cysteine S O O N H H H H H H H Cys C Cysteine Protease; Cysteine Peptidase TGT, TGC Sulfur-containing 49 2.0 1.96 5.07 C3H7NO2S 121.150 Cysteine 2-Amino-3-sulfhydrylpropanoic acid white crystals or powder 1.3±0.1 g/cm 240 °C (464 °F; 513 K) decomposes soluble
Glutamic acid O O O O N H H H H H H H H H Glu E Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase GAA, GAG Acidic -31 6.5 2.19 3.22 C5H9NO4 147.130 2-Aminopentanedioic acid 2-Aminoglutaric acid white crystalline powder 1.4601 (20 °C) 199 °C (390 °F; 472 K) decomposes 7.5 g/L (20 °C)
Glutamine O O O N N H H H H H H H H H H Gln Q Glutamine Synthetase CAA, CAG Amidic -10 4.0 2.17 5.65 C5H10N2O3 146.146 Glutamine L-Glutamine; (levo)glutamide; 2,5-Diamino-5-ox… White crystalline powder 1.47 g/cm3 (20 °C) decomposes around 185°C soluble
Glycine O O N H H H H H Gly G Glycine Decarboxylase Complex; Glycine Hydroxymethyltransferase; Glycine N-Methyltransferase GGT, GGC, GGA, GGG Aliphatic 0 7.0 2.34 5.97 C2H5NO2 75.067 2-aminoacetic acid 2-Aminoethanoic acid, Glycocoll White solid 1.1607 g/cm3 233 °C (451 °F; 506 K) (decomposition) 24.99 g/100 mL (25 °C)
Histidine O O N N N H H H H H H H H H His H Histidine Ammonia-Lyase; Histidine Decarboxylase; Histidine Acid Phytases CAT, CAC Basic 8 2.0 1.82 7.59 C6H9N3O2 155.157 Histidine 2-Amino-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid colourless crystals 1.4±0.1 g/cm3 287 °C 4.19g/100g @ 25 °C
Isoleucine O O N H H H H H H H H H H H H H Ile I L-Isoleucine 4-Hydroxlase; Isoleucine 2-Epimerase ATT, ATC, ATA Aliphatic 99 5.5 2.36 6.02 C6H13NO2 131.175 Isoleucine (2S,3S)-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid waxy, shiny crystals ?1.0±0.1 g/cm3 285.5 °C soluble
Leucine O O N H H H H H H H H H H H H H Leu L Leucine Dehydrogenase; Leucine Aminotransferase; Leucine Transaminase; Leucine Deacylase; Leucine Aminopeptidase CTT, CTC, CTA, CTG, TTA, TTG Aliphatic 97 9.0 2.36 5.98 C6H13NO2 131.175 Leucine 2-Amino-4-methylpentanoic acid white crystals 1.17 g/cm3 at 20 °C 293 °C soluble
Lysine O O N N H H H H H H H H H H H H H H Lys K Lysine a-Ketoglutarate Reductase; I-Lysine Monooxygenase; I-Lysine Decarboxylase; Lysine Oxidase; Lysine 2,3-Aminomutase AAA, AAG Basic -23 6.0 2.18 9.74 C6H14N2O2 146.190 (2S)-2,6-Diaminohexanoic acid (L-lysine); (2R)… Lysine, D-Lysine, L-lysine, LYS, h-Lys-OH colourless crystals 1.1±0.1 g/cm 3 224.5 °C 1.5 kg/L
Methionine S O O N H H H H H H H H H H H Met M Methionine Synthase; Methionine Aminopeptidase ATG Sulfur-containing 74 2.5 2.28 5.74 C5H11NO2S 149.210 Methionine 2-amino-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid White crystalline powder 1.340 g/cm3 281 °C (538 °F; 554 K) decomposes soluble
Phenylalanine O O N H H H H H H H H H H H Phe F Phenylalanine Hydroxylase TTT, TTC Aromatic 100 4.0 1.83 5.48 C9H11NO2 165.192 (S)-2-Amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid L-Phenylalanine White crystalline powder 1.34 g/cm3 at 20 °C 283 °C soluble
Proline O O N H H H H H H H H H Pro P Proline Dehydrogenase; Proline 3-Hydroxlase CCT, CCC, CCA, CCG Aliphatic -46 5.0 1.99 6.30 C5H9NO2 115.132 Proline; Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid L-Proline Transparent crystals 1.35-1.38 g/cm3 at 25 °C 205 to 228 °C (401 to 442 °F; 478 to 501 K) soluble
Serine O O O N H H H H H H H Ser S Serine Protease; Serine Endopeptidase; Serine Racemase TCT, TCC, TCA, TCG, AGT, AGC Hydroxylic -5 7.5 2.21 5.68 C3H7NO3 105.093 Serine 2-Amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid white crystals or powder 1.603 g/cm3 (22 °C) 246 °C (475 °F; 519 K) decomposes soluble
Threonine O O O N H H H H H H H H H Thr T Threonine Ammonia-Lyase; Threonine Deaminase; Threonine Dehydratase; Threonine Aldolase ACT, ACC, ACA, ACG Hydroxylic 13 6.0 2.09 5.60 C4H9NO3 119.120 Threonine 2-Amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid colourless crystals 1.3±0.1 g/cm 3 256 °C (decomposes) (H2O, g/dl) 10.6(30°),14.1(52°),19.0(61°)
Tryptophan O O N N H H H H H H H H H H H H Trp W Tryptophan Synthase; Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase TGG Aromatic 97 1.5 2.83 5.89 C11H12N2O2 204.229 Tryptophan; (2S)-2-amino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)prop… 2-Amino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoic acid White crystalline powder 1.4±0.1 g/cm3 290.5 °C Soluble: 0.23 g/L at 0 °C, 11.4 g/L at 25 °C
Tyrosine O O O N H H H H H H H H H H H Tyr Y Tyrosinase; Tyrosine Hydroxylase; Tyrosine Kinase; Tyrosine Decarboxylase TAT, TAC Aromatic 63 3.5 2.20 5.66 C9H11NO3 181.191 (S)-Tyrosine L-2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid white crystals 1.46 g/cm3 at 20 °C 343 °C .0453 g/100 mL
Valine O O N H H H H H H H H H H H Val V L-Valine Dehydrogenase GTT, GTC, GTA, GTG Aliphatic 76 6.5 2.32 5.96 C5H11NO2 117.148 Valine 2-Amino-3-methylbutanoic acid white crystalline solid 1.316 g/cm3 298 °C (568 °F; 571 K) (decomposition) soluble
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