Botany

Asexual Reproduction in Plants – Definition, Methods

The type of reproduction that doesn’t require the union of female and male gametes, and creates individuals who have genetically identical traits...

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This article writter by MN Editors on May 30, 2022

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Asexual Reproduction in Plants
Asexual Reproduction in Plants

The type of reproduction that doesn’t require the union of female and male gametes, and creates individuals who have genetically identical traits to their parent is referred to as Asexual reproduction. 

In the article below we will be able to learn about the asexual reproduction of plants, the types of it techniques. Therefore, let’s start by learning more about asexual reproduction in the following section.

Definition of Asexual Reproduction In Plants

Asexual reproduction is the development of a new species from an individual parent, without involvement of sex or gametes cells. Asexual reproduction is utilized by numerous multicellular and unicellular organisms. Budding fragmentation, vegetative propagation, and the formation of spores are all part of the process of Asexual reproduction in plants. Flowers are not necessary for this process. The plants created by Asexual reproduction are able to thrive in stable conditions.

Types of Asexual Reproduction in Plants

The process of asexual reproduction in plants can be accomplished through two different ways

  • Naturally
  • Artificially

Natural Methods of Asexual Reproduction in Plants

Natural methods of reproduction are self-propagation and. The various ways plants self-propagate are described in the following paragraphs:

  • The plants, such as ginger onion dahlia, potato develop from the buds that are at the top of the stem. The stem tuber is adorned with several eyes that are visible on the surface. If the conditions are favorable the eyes grow and produce green shoots.
  • The sweet potato has new plant life that could emerge from the buds, or the stolons.
  • In Byophyllum the tiny buds at the margins of the leaves are separated and transforms into a separate plant.

Budding

Budding is the process of asexual reproduction that occurs when the plant grows from an outgrowth, also known as the buds. The bud usually forms by cell division at a particular place.

For instance, if the potato is kept over an extended period of time there will be numerous tiny outgrowths that are generally referred to as “eyes’. Each one of them could be planted and will eventually form an clone of the initial potato.

Vegetative Propagation

It’s a type of asexual reproduction that occurs within plants, where new plants are created from the vegetative components of the plant, i.e. the stems, roots or buds. The vegetative propagation process in plants can be accomplished naturally or artificially stimulated by gardeners.

The most popular methods for vegetative propagation are:

  • Stems – runners are the stems that usually develop in a horizontal position over the ground. They are the ones with nodes at which buds form. The buds typically develop into an entirely new plant.
  • Roots – A plant is created by modifying roots, also known as tubers. Example: Sweet Potato
  • Leaves – in some plants, the leaves that have been removed from the parent plant may be used to develop new plants. They show the growth of tiny plants, referred to as plantlets along the edges of the leaves. Example: Bryophyllum.

Fragmentation

It is a method of asexual reproduction where the plant that is created from a small portion or a portion of the original plant. Each piece or part of the plants grows into an adult fully grown person. Certain plants are equipped with special mechanisms for reproduction via fragmentation. This sort of reproduction happens naturally when the tiny part of the plant falls off on the soil, and then begins to develop to form an entirely new plant. This technique is typically employed by nurseries and greenhouses to create plants rapidly.

Spore Formation

Many algae and plants form spores during their life. A spore is an asexual reproduction body, enclosed in a tough, protective cover that allows it to endure adverse conditions like high temperatures as well as low levels of humidity. In favorable conditions, seeds germinate and develop in new species. The ferns and mosses make use of this method of reproduction.

Artificial Methods

An artificial method is one in which several plants are grown from one plant by artificial processes. The following is the artificial method of sexual reproduction in plants

  1. Cutting: Cuttings of stems can be used to create plants like coleus and money plants, in which a small portion of the stem with nodes and internodes is buried in moist soil, and then let to grow. The new plant is created by cutting a small part from an established plant that is a stem, or leaf that has buds. This is then placed in the soil and then kept moist. A new plant may be observed sprouting within just a few days.
  2. Grafting: A technique where the pieces of two plants are joined together in order to grow into one plant. In grafting the stems of two plants are cut, then joined in such that they develop together as one plant. One of the stems cut has roots and is called stock. Another stem referred to as the scion cut with no roots. The stock and scion cut surfaces are slid into place and stitched using a cloth, then covered by a polythene covering. The cover protects the stem from infections and other ailments. In the next few days the scion and stock join to create a new plant. Specific characteristics of both plants can be seen in the fruit that this brand new one produces.
  3. Layering: Layering can be described as a method where a plant’s stem is connected to a plant, and then lowered into the ground and then coated with soil. It is permitted to grow into the soil in such the manner that a part of the branch is released from the soil upon layering. The portion of the branch which is in touch with soil begins to grow roots and gets removed of the plant. The new plant is born from the buried branch this manner.
  4. Micropropagation: This is a technique of generating a huge amount of plant species from an existing explant in conditions in the laboratory within a short time period. This allows for the growth of endangered and rare species of plants that are difficult to cultivate in natural conditions.

Advantages of Artificial Method

Here are some advantages of artificial methods:

  • It will be equipped with similar characteristics to the original plant.
  • Fruit trees which have been grafted will bear more fruit much sooner.
  • Plants need less attention in the beginning stages of their development.
  • One parent can grow multiple plants.
  • The plants are not seeded and are readily available
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Microbiology Notes is an educational niche blog related to microbiology (bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology, immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, etc.) and different branches of biology.

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