Morphology of Bacteria – Sizes, Shapes, Arrangements, Examples With Images

What are bacteria?

  • Bacteria, encapsulating a vast and diverse realm of prokaryotic microorganisms, emerge as a fundamental pillar within the biological hierarchy due to their pervasive distribution and notable influence on ecological and physiological landscapes. This universally abundant life form is unequivocally unicellular and subscribes to the taxonomic domain of Prokaryota, indicative of an inherent absence of a well-defined, membrane-encased nucleus and organelles, contrasting them with their eukaryotic counterparts.
  • Pivotal to our understanding of bacterial phylogeny is the recognition of the remarkable morphological diversity exhibited within this domain. The microscopic examination reveals a spectrum of shapes, notably encompassing bacilli (rod-shaped), cocci (spherical), and spirilla (spiral), alongside additional forms that pivot towards pleomorphism, thus exuding an inherent flexibility in maintaining various shapes. The deployment of microscopic techniques, such as staining and microscopy, particularly accentuates the structural and organizational nuances, thereby offering insights into their physical attributes and potential taxonomic classifications.
  • Intriguingly, despite the preponderance of bacteria being microscopic, certain members of this vast domain indeed transcend this generalization, rendering themselves visible to the unaided human eye. This rare subset of bacteria thus invites further scientific curiosity regarding the mechanistic and evolutionary pathways that have facilitated such a notable deviation from the stereotypical bacterial size norms.
  • Further, the ubiquity of bacteria within a plethora of ecological niches, extending from the profundity of oceanic trenches to the fervent heat of terrestrial hot springs, underscores their unparalleled adaptability and metabolic versatility. These microorganisms demonstrate a capacity to inhabit an array of environments, even where extremophilic conditions prevail, revealing a resilience and adaptive capacity that is pivotal for scientific studies related to extremophiles and potential applications, such as biotechnology and astrobiology.
  • Such expansive environmental colonization is undeniably mediated by their varied metabolic strategies, which in turn enable them to occupy a spectrum of ecological roles, ranging from autotrophs, which derive energy through inorganic compounds, to heterotrophs, which necessitate organic substrates for sustenance. This metabolic diversification thereby perpetuates bacterial influence across a multitude of biological and geochemical cycles, signifying their indispensable role in maintaining planetary homeostasis.
  • It is pertinent to acknowledge that, as we delve into a more granular exploration of bacteria, the methodologies of culturing, isolation, and subsequent morphological characterization become instrumental. These allow for a systematic evaluation and understanding of their physiological characteristics and ecological functions, facilitating an enhanced comprehension of their roles in global cycles, medical sciences, and technology.
  • In summation, bacteria, with their vast morphological and metabolic diversity, not only wield a significant influence across a myriad of biological and ecological spectra but also serve as a focal point for scientific inquiries that traverse cellular biology, ecology, and evolutionary science, thereby perpetuating a continual expansion of our understanding of life’s myriad forms and functions.

Characteristics Features of bacteria

Bacteria, as microscopic entities, exhibit a unique assemblage of features that distinguish them from eukaryotic organisms, fundamentally setting them apart within the vast expanse of biological taxa. These features are emblematic of their evolutionary lineage and functional adaptability, encapsulating their cellular architecture, metabolic pathways, and ecological roles.

  1. Cellular Nature: Bacteria are inherently unicellular prokaryotes, denoting that they consist of a single cell devoid of a true nucleus and organized membrane-bound organelles.
  2. Morphological Diversity: Bacterial morphology is notably varied. The shapes, sizes, and arrangements of bacterial cells serve as key taxonomic markers, with variations often being specific to bacterial species.
  3. Nucleoid Region: Unlike eukaryotic cells, bacteria lack a defined nucleus. Instead, their genetic material, primarily comprising DNA, is dispersed within the cytoplasm and doesn’t form complex chromatin structures typically observed in eukaryotic counterparts.
  4. Relative Size: In terms of dimensions, bacterial cells are considerably diminutive compared to eukaryotic cells. With an average diameter of approximately 1µm (10^-6 m), they are approximately ten times smaller than human cells.
  5. Cell Wall Composition: Encasing the bacterial cell is a protective, rigid cell wall that bestows structural robustness and resilience. This wall is fundamentally constituted of peptidoglycan (often referred to as murein), a polymer that imparts both strength and flexibility.
  6. External Appendages: Beyond their primary cellular structure, many bacteria harbor external structures like cilia and flagella. These appendages typically facilitate locomotion, adhesion to surfaces, and interaction with their environment.
  7. Metabolic Versatility: Bacteria exhibit metabolic diversity, accommodating a range of energy acquisition strategies. Depending on the energy and carbon source, they can be classified as photoautotrophs (deriving energy from light and using inorganic carbon), chemoautotrophs (deriving energy from chemical reactions and using inorganic carbon), or parasites (deriving nutrients from living hosts).

Size of Bacterial Cell

Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells
Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells
  • Bacterial cell dimensions, though minute in nature, present a wide array of sizes indicative of the diversity inherent within bacterial phylogeny. The metric predominantly employed for such measurements in bacteriology is the micron (µm), which is a unit representing one-thousandth of a millimeter.
  • Generally, bacteria manifest sizes that are approximately a tenth of eukaryotic cells. These cells predominantly lie within the range of 0.5 to 5 µm. Nonetheless, this scale has observed extensions, with the tiniest bacterial species approximating 0.3 µm and the most substantial reaching dimensions as expansive as 0.7 mm.
  • Given the inherent limitations of human vision, with the resolution threshold being around 200 microns, many bacterial species elude naked eye observation due to their sub-threshold dimensions. This renders a significant proportion of bacteria invisible without the aid of magnifying apparatuses.
  • Delving into specific bacterial dimensions, the Thiomargarita namibiensis stands as one of the most substantial, spanning up to half a millimeter. Concurrently, the Epulopiscium fishelsoni extends even further, reaching a length of 0.75 mm. Contrasting this, the Mycoplasma genus houses some of the most minuscule bacteria, with dimensions closely rivaling the largest known viruses, at approximately 0.3 µm. A more commonly known bacterium, Escherichia coli, typically exhibits diameters ranging between 1.1 to 1.5 µm.
  • The relevance of bacterial size is not merely a matter of taxonomic classification but bears ecological and physiological implications. Their diminutive stature facilitates survival in niche environments, such as marine sediments, which are often devoid of other life forms. This allows bacteria to monopolize available resources efficiently. Moreover, a smaller size is often conducive to parasitism and persistence in nutrient-scarce zones. The high surface area to volume ratio characteristic of smaller cells enables efficient nutrient absorption, promoting consistent growth and reproduction.
  • Further differentiation based on shape shows that spherical bacteria average between 0.5-2.0 µm in diameter, while rod-shaped varieties typically lie within 0.25-1.0 µm. There are outliers, such as the aforementioned Epulosiscium fishelsoni, which can reach visually discernible sizes of up to 80 µm in diameter and 600 µm in length.
  • Interestingly, bacterial size is not directly proportional to complexity. Even within their limited dimensions, bacterial cells can engage in sophisticated behaviors. For instance, through mechanisms like “Quorum sensing”, bacteria can communicate and coordinate with other cells. This capability underlines the fact that bacteria, despite their individual diminutiveness, can function cohesively in multicellular congregations, further accentuating their evolutionary sophistication and adaptability.

Shapes of bacterial cell

The morphology of bacterial cells, specifically their shapes, serves as a primary means of categorizing and understanding these microscopic entities. Herein, we elucidate the predominant shapes of bacterial cells:


1. Cocci (Spherical Bacteria): Cocci are essentially spherical in shape, although they can sometimes exhibit oval, elongated, or even bean-shaped configurations. These bacteria may exist as individual cells or aggregate in groups of two, four, eight, or larger clusters. The plane of division, which remains unaltered post cell replication, significantly influences their overall morphology. Depending upon the nature of their cell wall, cocci can be delineated into two categories:

  • Gram-Positive Cocci: Characterized by a thick peptidoglycan layer.
  • Gram-Negative Cocci: Exhibiting a comparatively thin peptidoglycan cell wall.

2. Bacilli (Rod-Shaped Bacteria): Bacilli, true to their nomenclature, adopt a rod-like form. These can either be solitary or remain attached in chains post cell division. Belonging to various taxonomic classifications, bacilli can be either:

  • Gram-Positive: Represented by genera like Actinomyces, Clostridium, and Bacillus.
  • Gram-Negative: Examples include Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Salmonella.

Interestingly, the genus Bacillus epitomizes gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that can form resilient endospores, enduring extreme environmental conditions. While they predominantly comprise free-living, non-parasitic species, pathogenic members like Bacillus anthracis (responsible for anthrax) and Bacillus cereus (culprit behind certain food poisonings) also exist.

3. Spiral Bacteria: These bacteria manifest in helical or spiral forms. Based on certain characteristics, they are segregated into:

  • Spirillum: Gram-negative, rigid bacteria, equipped with external flagella. Noteworthy species include Spirillum, Campylobacter jejuni, and Helicobacter pylori.
  • Spirochete: Thin, flexible spiral bacteria boasting internal periplasmic flagella, these often entail pathogenic strains causing grave illnesses. Emblematic species encompass Leptospira and Treponema pallidum.

4. Vibrio (Comma-Shaped Bacteria): Resembling a comma in their appearance, vibrios predominantly exhibit a gram-negative character. Notorious for inciting foodborne maladies, these facultative anaerobes possess dual chromosomes that undergo independent replication. Iconic members of this group include Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

Bacterial ShapeDescriptionCell Wall CharacteristicExamplesAdditional Notes
Cocci (Spherical)Spherical, oval, elongated, or bean-shaped. May exist as individual cells or in groups.– Gram-Positive: Thick peptidoglycan layer.<br> – Gram-Negative: Thin peptidoglycan cell wall.Not specifiedPlane of division influences shape.
Bacilli (Rod-Shaped)Rod-like, solitary or attached in chains post-division.– Gram-Positive: e.g. Actinomyces, Clostridium, Bacillus.<br> – Gram-Negative: e.g. Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella.Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereusBacillus genus can form resilient endospores.
Spiral BacteriaHelical or spiral forms.– Spirillum: Gram-negative, rigid with external flagella.<br> – Spirochete: Thin, flexible with internal periplasmic flagella.Spirillum, Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, Leptospira, Treponema pallidumSpirochetes often entail pathogenic strains.
Vibrio (Comma-Shaped)Resemble a comma.Mostly gram-negative.Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticusFacultative anaerobes with dual chromosomes undergoing independent replication.

In summation, bacterial morphology, underscored by their distinct shapes, provides a pivotal criterion for their classification, aiding in comprehending their ecological roles and potential pathogenic attributes.

Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells
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Reason For Variation In Shape of Bacterial Cell

The morphology of bacterial cells is intrinsically linked to the underlying structural elements, with a primary determinant being the protein, MreB. Functionally analogized to actin in eukaryotic cells, MreB furnishes the bacterial cell with a rudimentary cytoskeleton. Precisely, this protein organizes into a helical filamentous pattern, circumferentially spanning the cellular interior just beneath the cytoplasmic membrane.

MreB is not merely a structural scaffold; it orchestrates cellular architecture by guiding the assortment and localization of additional proteins that sequentially determine the specifics of bacterial cell wall synthesis and growth patterns. In essence, MreB plays a cardinal role in maintaining and dictating the cell’s shape.


An empirical substantiation of the pivotal role of MreB in determining bacterial cell shape can be gleaned from genetic studies. When the gene encoding MreB in rod-shaped (bacillus) bacteria is rendered non-functional, a remarkable morphological shift is observed, with the bacteria transitioning from their native rod shape to a spherical (coccoid) form. This transformation underscores the importance of the MreB protein in maintaining the elongated bacillary form. Intriguingly, naturally occurring coccoid bacteria are devoid of the MreB gene, lending credence to the postulate that the presence or absence of this gene, and by extension the MreB protein, plays a determinative role in bacterial cell morphology.

Arrangement of Bacterial Cell

The spatial organization of bacterial cells post-division is emblematic of their characteristic modes of growth and is pivotal in their identification and classification. The primary configurations in which bacterial cells arrange themselves can be compartmentalized into five distinct types, each providing insights into the cellular division and growth patterns:

  1. Diplo-: This arrangement is characterized by the persistence of cells in pairs post-division. It denotes a singular division axis wherein the resultant daughter cells remain attached, yielding a dimeric structure.
  2. Strepto-: Here, the cells manifest in linear chains subsequent to their division. This linear arrangement emerges from repeated cell divisions occurring along a single plane, with each daughter cell remaining attached to its adjacent cells, creating a chained appearance.
  3. Tetrad: Cells in this configuration assemble in quartets, implying they persist in groups of four. This arises from cell divisions transpiring along two perpendicular planes, resulting in a quadrilateral arrangement.
  4. Sarcinae: This arrangement typifies a cuboidal structure where cells are organized in clusters of eight. The genesis of this configuration is the sequential division of cells across three orthogonal planes, culminating in a three-dimensional cube-like assembly.
  5. Staphylo-: In this modality, bacterial cells are seen in irregular, grape-like clusters. This is a consequence of multiple rounds of cell division occurring in several planes without a prescribed orientation, yielding a conglomerate of interconnected cells.
Bacterial ArrangementDescriptionExamples
Diplo-Pairs of cellsDiplococci (like Streptococcus pneumoniae)
Tetra-Groups of four cellsTetracocci
Strepto-Chains of cellsStreptococci (like Streptococcus pyogenes)
Staphylo-Grape-like clustersStaphylococci (like Staphylococcus aureus)
SarcinaCubic arrangement of 8 cellsSarcina ventriculi
PalisadeCells that remain in side-by-side arrangementCorynebacterium diphtheriae
CoccobacillusShort round rodsHaemophilus influenzae
VibrioComma-shaped bacteriaVibrio cholerae
SpirillumRigid spiral structures with flagellaSpirillum minus
SpirocheteFlexible spiral structuresTreponema pallidum
TrichomesChains of cells without clear separation, often in a sheathCertain species of cyanobacteria

Arrangements of Cocci

Cocci, spherical bacterial cells, exhibit a variety of intricate and definitive arrangements post-cellular division. These configurations are foundational for their taxonomic categorization and are reflective of their reproductive behavior. The following illustrates the diverse arrangements of cocci:

  1. Singular Coccus: A solitary, individual coccus cell represents this basic arrangement. These are isolated, free-floating cells not adhered to other cocci.
  2. Diplococci: Characterized by pairs of cocci cells, diplococci originate when two daughter cells remain conjoined post-division. The specific morphology of these paired cells can vary— from perfect spheres to flattened or bean-like structures. Some exemplary bacteria displaying this pattern include Streptococcus pneumonia, Moraxella catarrhalis, Enterococcus spp, and Neisseria gonorrhea.
  3. Tetrad: Cocci arranged in groups of four epitomize the tetrad configuration. Such an arrangement is a consequence of cellular divisions transpiring along two orthogonal planes. Representatives of this arrangement encompass bacterial species like Aerococcus, Pediococcus, and Tetragenococcus.
  4. Sarcina: Distinguished by clusters of eight cells, the sarcina configuration arises from divisions occurring across three perpendicular planes. Notably, bacteria adhering to this structure are typically strict anaerobes. Examples include Sarcina aurantiaca, Sarcina lutea, and Sarcina ventriculi.
  5. Streptococci: Linear chains of cocci cells typify the streptococci arrangement. Members of the Streptococcaceae family, characterized by their non-motility and Gram-positive nature, often exhibit this pattern. Some notable examples are Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Streptococcus mutans.
  6. Staphylococci: Resembling grape-like assemblages, staphylococci configurations result from cellular divisions in multiple planes. Such bacteria are generally non-motile and Gram-positive. Prominent bacteria exhibiting this arrangement include Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus capitis.
Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells
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Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells
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Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells
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Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells
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Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells
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Arrangement of Bacilli (plural, bacilli)

Bacilli, characterized by their rod-like structure, exhibit various arrangements based on their post-divisional organization. The morphology and arrangement of bacilli are pivotal for taxonomic classifications and can offer insights into their physiological characteristics. The following elucidates the distinctive arrangements of bacilli:

  1. Singular Bacillus: These are standalone, individual rod-shaped bacterial cells. Many bacilli can sporulate, forming resistant endospores, particularly under unfavorable environmental conditions. Being facultative anaerobes, they can thrive in both the presence and absence of oxygen. Some classic examples include Salmonella enterica subsp, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella choleraesuis.
  2. Diplobacilli: Analogous to diplococci, diplobacilli manifest as pairs of bacilli. Post-cell division, the resulting two cells remain connected, presenting a dual-cell configuration. Representing this grouping are bacteria such as Coxiella burnetii, Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, and Moraxella bovis.
  3. Streptobacilli: Characterized by linear chains of bacilli, the streptobacilli arrangement emerges when cells divide in a singular plane and remain attached in a sequential manner. Examples of bacteria adopting this arrangement are Streptobacillus moniliformis, Streptobacillus Levaditi, Streptobacillus felis, and Streptobacillus hongkongensis.
  4. Coccobacilli: Presenting an intermediate morphology between cocci and bacilli, coccobacilli are notably shorter, giving them a somewhat stunted appearance. Their structural attributes are suggestive of both spherical and rod-shaped forms. Renowned representatives of this configuration are Chlamydia trachomatis, Haemophilus influenza, and Gardnerella vaginalis.
  5. Palisades: A distinctive arrangement where bacilli resemble structures akin to a picket fence, often due to a bend during cellular division. Their unique configuration can sometimes evoke visual similarities to Chinese characters. A prominent bacterium displaying this morphology is Corynebacterium diphtheria, a pathogen responsible for diphtheria.
Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells
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Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells
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Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells
Image: Streptobacillus | Created By:
Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells
Image: Palisad and Trichomes| Created By:

Arrangement of Spiral

Bacteria exhibiting spiral morphologies are among the most intriguing and distinct entities within the microbial realm, both in terms of structural dynamics and motility mechanisms. These spiral bacteria, based on their specific configurations and characteristics, are classified into three primary categories:

  1. Vibrio: Characterized by their slightly bent or curved shape, vibrios can be visualized as entities reminiscent of a comma. This unique shape is crucial for their identification and lends to their taxonomic distinction. Representative bacteria from this category include Vibrio mytili, Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and the pathogenic Vibrio cholera, responsible for the cholera disease.
  2. Spirochetes: Recognized for their helical configuration, spirochetes showcase a pronounced spiral form. A defining feature of spirochetes is the axial filament—a structure crucial for their motility. This filament spans the entire bacterial length, facilitating a distinctive twisting motion. Moreover, the presence of this axial filament differentiates spirochetes from other spiral bacteria. Examples of bacteria from this grouping include the Leptospira species, notably Leptospira interrogans, as well as Treponema pallidum, and Borrelia recurrentis.
  3. Spirilla (or Helical-shaped/Corkscrew form): Though these bacteria share a semblance with spirochetes, they possess a more rigid structure. Spirilla are equipped with flagella that enable motility, but in contrast to spirochetes, they are devoid of the internal flagella, or endoflagella. Examples of bacteria that fit within this category are Campylobacter jejuni, which is often linked to foodborne illnesses; Helicobacter pylori, associated with stomach ulcers; and Spirillum winogradskyi.
Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells
Image: Vibrio and Spirilla bacteria| Created By:
Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells
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Other Shapes and Arrangements of Bacteria

Bacterial diversity extends not just to metabolic capabilities and genetic makeup but also to a vast array of morphological structures. While many bacterial forms are well-known, such as rods (bacilli) and spheres (cocci), there exist a myriad of other shapes and structural adaptations that facilitate their survival in specific niches. Here’s a delineation of some of these unconventional bacterial forms:

  1. Appendaged Bacteria: Certain bacteria develop specific structures like pili or fimbriae, which are termed appendages. These structures often enhance the virulence of the bacteria, facilitating attachment to host cells or other surfaces. An illustrative bacterium in this category is Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection, gonorrhea.
  2. Box-shaped/Rectangular Bacteria: As the name suggests, these bacteria manifest a box or rectangular morphology. A representative species of this group is Haloarcula marismortui, typically found in hypersaline environments.
  3. Club-shaped Rod Bacteria: These bacteria exhibit a distinct rod shape with one end broader than the other, akin to a club. The genus Corynebacterium exemplifies this form, with some species being pathogenic to humans.
  4. Filamentous Bacteria: Characterized by their long, slender, and thread-like form, filamentous bacteria occasionally undergo division that results in branched structures. These resemble mycelial structures in fungi. A notable genus within this category is Actinomycetes.
  5. Triangular-shaped Bacteria: A unique morphological group includes bacteria that possess a triangular shape, with Haloarcula serving as an example.
  6. Pleomorphic Bacteria: These bacteria exhibit an inherent variability in their shape. Rather than having a fixed morphology, they can undergo transformations during their life cycle. Notable members include Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium.
  7. Stalked Bacteria: A stalk, or protrusion, characterizes some bacteria at one end, aiding in attachment to surfaces or nutrient absorption. An example is Caulobacter crescentus.
  8. Star-shaped Bacteria: Few bacterial species showcase a stellar or star-like morphology. The genus Stella, like Stella humosa, exemplifies this form.
  9. Sheathed Bacteria: Certain bacteria, often found in aquatic or sludge habitats, possess a protective sheath encompassing their rod or filamentous form. An example is the genus Leptothrix.

Different morphology name of Bacteria

The diverse world of bacteria is characterized not only by the fundamental shapes we often hear about but also by an array of unique morphologies that grant them adaptability in various environments.

  • Filamentous Bacteria: As the name suggests, these bacteria manifest in elongated filamentous forms. An exemplar species in this category is “Candidatus savagella.”
  • Star-Shaped Bacteria: Characterized by their stellar appearance, species such as Stella humosa and Stella vacuolata proudly don this morphology.
  • Rectangular Bacteria: Exhibiting a distinctive box-like or rectangular shape, some halophilic bacteria, including Haloarcula vallismortis, can be classified under this category.
  • Pleomorphic Bacteria: Intriguingly, pleomorphic bacteria do not adhere to a singular shape. Instead, they can undergo morphological transformations in response to varying external factors like environmental stressors. Notable examples include Mycoplasma pneumonia and Mycoplasma genitalium.
  • Appendaged Bacteria: Also referred to as budding bacteria, these can be either stationary or exhibit motility via flagella. Hypomicrobium and Rhodomicrobium are quintessential representatives.
  • Trichome Morphology: Trichomes represent chains of vegetative cells, often enrobed in a mucilaginous sheath, a characteristic prominently observed in certain cyanobacteria such as Thiothrix nivea.
  • Lobed Bacteria: Sporting a lobed morphology, these bacteria predominantly inhabit hot and volcanic springs. Notably, they are acidophiles and thermophiles, with Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and Sulfolobus solfataricus serving as classic examples.
  • Fusiform Bacteria: These bacterial cells adopt a spindle shape, broadening in the middle and tapering towards the ends. Fusobacterium necrophorum is a prototypical fusiform bacterium.
  • Stalked Bacteria: Resulting from asymmetrical cell division, a stalk-like structure is formed at one end of these bacteria. Caulobacter crescentus is a paradigmatic stalked bacterium.
  • Sheathed Bacteria: These bacterial species are encased within a sheath and are predominantly aquatic. Leptothrix and Clonothrix epitomize this morphological category.


  1. Kevin D. Young. (2006). The Selective Value of Bacterial Shape. American Society for Microbiology.
  2. Moshtaq Talip Al-mohanna. (2016). Morphology And Classification Of Bacteria. ResearchGate.
  3. Siamak Yaghobee and Mojtaba Bayani. (2015). What are the nanobacteria?. ResearchGate.
  4. James T. Staley. (1999). Size Limits of Very Small Microorganisms: Proceedings of a Workshop.

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