The essential component of sexual reproduction in plants is the seed. It is the end product of sexual reproduction and is only found in angiosperms or gymnosperms. Gymnosperms do not produce fruits or flowers, so their seeds are "naked". Angiosperms on the other hand, have mature ovules which develop within the fruit after fertilization.
Monocotyledonous leaves are slender and elongated. They have parallel venation. It is commonly used to differentiate monocotyledonous species from dicots. Monocot leaves are bilateral since the surfaces of both leaves have the identical coloration.
Photosynthesis is the process used by plants, including green ones, and photosynthetic bacteria. electromagnetic radiation is converted to chemical energy. It uses light energy to transform water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and carbohydrates.
Sphagnum is commonly referred to as peat moss, bog turf moss or moss moss due of its ecological significance in the creation of peat and bog. These plants are perennial and thrive in swamps and damp habitats such as rocky slopes, where water accumulates , or in areas where it drips.
Funaria is home to approximately 210 species moss species. Funaria hygrometrica, the most widespread species, is it. Funaria hygrometrica, also known as "cord moss", is a twisted seta that is extremely hygroscopic. It is untwists when wet. Latin for "funis" means "a rope". Funaria root structures are called rhizoids. The moss can survive as a spore in capsules, which are plentiful.
Marchantia's thallus shows two layers of differentiation: one is the upper photosynthetic layer, which has pores and well-defined epidermis. The lower storage layer is less defined. Gemmae are tiny tissue packets that can be used for asexual reproduction. The thallus is made up of small cups-like structures known as gemma cups. The combination of the barrel-shaped pores and circular shape of gemma cups is indicative of the genus. The ventral surface of thallus contains multicellular purple-colored scales with single-cell thickness and unicellular Rhizoids.
Nonvascular plants, called bryophytes, don't have xylem and phloem. These plants have a wide range of habitats, from bare rocks under the scorching sun to frozen alpine slopes. These include mosses and liverworts, as well as hornworts. These plants need external water, often in the form dew or rain.