In the previous article, I have already discussed What is Microbiology? And History Of Microbiology. In this article, we will discuss Different branches of Microbiology and their purpose.
What is Microbiology? Microbiology is an advanced biology course that studies unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells) microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, algae, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.
Branches of Microbiology
There are two branches of Microbiology such as Pure Microbiology and Applied Microbiology. Microbiology can be also classified into bacteriology, mycology, protozoology, and phycology, etc based on their taxonomy.
There is appreciable overlap between the particular branches of microbiology with one another and with different disciplines, and sure facets of those branches can prolong past the normal scope of microbiology In common the sphere of microbiology could be divided within the extra elementary department (pure microbiology) and the utilized microbiology (biotechnology).
In the extra elementary discipline, the organisms are studied as the topic itself on a deeper (theoretical) stage. Applied microbiology refers back to the fields the place the micro-organisms are utilized in sure processes reminiscent of brewing or fermentation. The organisms itself are sometimes not studied as such, however, utilized to maintain sure processes.
Also Read: Introduction of Microbiology and Microbe
A. Different Fields of Pure microbiology
In Protozoology we study about protozoa, the “animal-like” protists.
Example: This branch studies about Amoeba and plasmodium.
In Bacteriology, we study the morphology, ecology, genetics, and biochemistry of bacteria.
Example: This branch studies about Coccus, Bacillus, Spirillum, Rickettsia, and Mycoplasma.
In Mycology, we study the genetic, biochemical properties, taxonomy, Benefits (Uses for tinder, traditional medicine, food, and entheogens), toxicity or infection of fungi. A person who is specializing in mycology is called a mycologist.
Example: This branch studies about mushrooms, molds, and yeasts.
In Phycology or algology, we study about algae.
Example: This branch studies Green algae (Chlorophyta), Euglenophyta (Euglenoids), Red algae (Rhodophyta), etc.
In this branch of Pure microbiology, we study about immune systems in all organisms.
Example: This branch studies about different disorders such as autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, and also other topics related to immunology.
In this branch of Pure microbiology, we study about viruses.
Example: This branch studies about smallpox virus, ebola virus, etc.
In this branch of Pure microbiology, we study about nematodes, or roundworms.
Example: This branch studies about Nematodes that commonly parasitise humans include ascarids (Ascaris), filarias, hookworms, pinworms (Enterobius), and whipworms (Trichuris trichiura)
8. Microbial cytology
In this branch of Pure microbiology, we study about microscopic and submicroscopic details of microorganisms.
Example: This branch studies about internal structure, external structure, etc of microorganisms.
9. Evolutionary microbiology
This branch study about the evolution of microbes. This branch is divided into two groups Microbial taxonomy (naming and classification of microorganisms) and Microbial systematics (diversity and genetic relationship of microorganisms)
10. Generation microbiology
In this branch of Pure microbiology, we study about those microorganisms that have the same characters as their parents
11. Systems microbiology
Systems microbiology a discipline bridging systems biology and microbiology.
12. Molecular microbiology
In this branch of Pure microbiology, we study about the molecular principles of the physiological processes in microorganisms
In this branch of Pure microbiology, we study about the genetic relationships between different organisms
14. Microbial physiology
In this branch of Pure microbiology, we study how the microbial cell functions biochemically. Includes the study of microbial growth, microbial metabolism, and microbial cell structure.
15. Microbial ecology or environmental microbiology
In this branch of Pure microbiology, we study the relationship of microorganisms with one another and with their environment.
16. Microbial genetics:
In this branch of Pure microbiology, we study how genes are organized and regulated in microbes in relation to their cellular functions Closely related to the field of molecular biology.
17. Cellular microbiology
It is a discipline that bridges microbiology and cell biology.
In this branch of Pure microbiology, we study about parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.
Example: This branch studies about Plasmodium spp, Leishmania, Entamoeba and Giardia, etc.
B. Different Fields of Applied microbiology
1. Medical microbiology
This branch of microbiology studies about pathogenic microbes, their role in human illness, epidemiology, etc.
2. Pharmaceutical microbiology
This branch study about those microbes are responsible for the production of antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins, vaccines, and other pharmaceutical products.
3. Industrial microbiology
In Industrial microbiology, we study the exploitation of microbes for use in industrial processes. For example, we study about industrial fermentation and wastewater treatment.
4. Microbial biotechnology
In Microbial biotechnology, we study the manipulation of microorganisms at the genetic and molecular level to generate useful products.
5. Food microbiology
In Food microbiology, we study microorganisms causing food spoilage and foodborne illness.
6. Agricultural microbiology
In Agricultural microbiology, we study about those microorganisms, which are relevant to agriculture.
7. Plant microbiology
In Plant microbiology, we study the interactions between microorganisms and plants and plant pathogens.
8. Soil microbiology
In Soil microbiology, we study those microorganisms that are found in soil.
9. Veterinary microbiology
In Veterinary Microbiology, we study the role of microbes in veterinary medicine or animal taxonomy
10. Environmental microbiology
In this branch of microbiology we study the function and diversity of microbes in their natural environments. This field also divided into different branches such as, Microbial ecology, Microbially mediated nutrient cycling, Geomicrobiology, Microbial diversity, Bioremediation.
11. Water microbiology
In Water microbiology, we study about those microorganisms that are found in water.
In Aeromicrobiology we study about airborne microorganisms.
In biotechnology, we study about recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering.