Human Anatomy

Human Anatomy

3 Notes

What is Anatomy?

Anatomy is a branch of biology that tries to figure out how the bodies of different living things are put together by taking them apart.

The word anatomy comes from the Greek word “anatom,” where “ana” means “up” and “tome” means “cutting.” Anatomy got its name because it used to be taught by cutting up dead bodies.

Types of Anatomy

Anatomy could be classified into:

  • Human Anatomy – Human anatomy is the study of how the human body is put together. It looks at the circulatory, digestive, endocrine, skeletal, lymphatic, nervous, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, and muscular systems.
  • Plant Anatomy – This is also known as the phytotomy. It is the study of how a plant works on the inside, including its tissues, roots, stem, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds.
  • Animal Anatomy – Zootomy is another name for animal anatomy. It looks at the cells, tissues, organs, bones, and other parts of an animal’s body that make up its internal structure.

As was said above, dissection was the main way people learned about anatomy. In Greek and Latin, the words “Anatomy” and “dissection” mean almost the same thing. Not only do the words “anatomy” and “dissection” come from the same root, but anatomy is a very broad field, and the word “dissection” is no longer used.

On the other hand, physiology is mostly about how the body works and how it works. It is very different from anatomy, which is all about the way an organism is put together.

Anatomy is classified into:

  1. Microscopic Anatomy (Histology)
  2. Gross Anatomy (Macroscopic anatomy).

Microscopic Anatomy (Histology)

Also called “histology.” The study of cells and tissues as seen through a microscope is known as microscopic anatomy. Histologists are the people who are experts in this field of study. In this process, cells and tissues are marked and cut into sections that can be looked at under a microscope. The biological samples are cut into thin slices so they can be looked at more closely. Stains are put on these samples that have been cut up to make them easier to see and to draw attention to important structures. You can use microscopic anatomy to look at and compare the structures of different types of organisms and the different stages of the cell cycle.

Application of Histology

  • Frequently, histology slides are used to illustrate the microscopic structures of biological cells and tissues.
  • Tissue analysis can disclose vital information regarding any underlying illness or disease.
  • It is incredibly useful during postmortems since it can pinpoint the exact cause of death.
  • Utilizable in palaeontology, particularly for identifying fossils.
  • Utilized for the diagnosis of specific cancer cells and biopsies.
  • Utilizable in different areas of biological science.

Gross Anatomy

Also called large-scale anatomy. Gross anatomy is the study of parts of an organism that can be seen with the naked eye. The main goal of gross anatomy is to learn everything there is to know about how an organism is put together.

Application of Gross Anatomy:

  • Gross anatomy is used to learn more about each organ in depth.
  • In endoscopy, a tube with a camera at the end is put into the body cavity of a living thing.
  • It is used in Angiography, a procedure in which a clear dye is injected into the blood vessels to see how blood moves through the body.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-rays are used to study the organs and structures inside of living things.


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