Basic Microbiology

Centrifugation of blood – Blood Separation

The process of dividing whole blood into its components is known as blood separation. For research purposes, diagnostic and therapeutic reasons as...

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This article writter by MN Editors on January 02, 2022

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Centrifugation of blood - Blood Separation
Centrifugation of blood - Blood Separation

Centrifugation of blood 

The process of dividing whole blood into its components is known as blood separation. For research purposes, diagnostic and therapeutic reasons as well as research, whole blood may be separated. Scientists may employ several blood separation methods to achieve this. Blood separation machines that spin at high speeds exert a centripetal force, which separates blood into its components. This is the most common blood separation technique. These blood separation machines are also known as blood separation centrifuges. CAPP’s CAPPRondo blood separator centrifuges help scientists get better clinical outcomes for patients as well as reliable blood separation for research.

Components of blood

Whole blood is a tissue that contains many cellular and non-cellular components. Cells, plasma, and platelets are the major components of blood. (Cell fragments that aid in clotting). Two types of blood are present: red blood cells (erythrocytes) and white blood cell (leukocytes). The blood cells responsible for distributing oxygen from the lungs to all other parts of the organism are called erythrocytes. As part of the immune system’s immune system, leukocytes are responsible for attacking infectious cells and keeping the organism healthy. Further, leukocytes can also be classified into lymphocytes and monocytes as well as eosinophils and basophils. Blood separation techniques like centrifugation can separate the components of whole blood. Scientists can use blood separation to study diseases and provide treatment.

components of blood plasma
components of blood plasma

Components of blood plasma

Plasma is a yellowish substance that suspends blood cells in it. Plasma is composed of several dissolved molecules and water. The components of blood plasma together account for the large blood volume (+-55%). Blood plasma contains glucose, proteins and salts as well as clotting factors, hormones and immunoglobulins. Scientists can use blood plasma components to treat injuries and diseases. Good blood separation techniques are essential for clinicians to better treat patients because plasma is made up of many useful components.

Separation of blood into its components

Blood separation tests are routinely performed by diagnostic laboratories to check for disease markers and prepare for transfusions. Every blood component is unique and may need to be separated from other components in order to diagnose or provide therapeutic benefits. Scientists often use blood component densities to create blood separation techniques. This blood separation technique allows diagnostic laboratories to accurately assay each component of blood, which results in better outcomes for patients. The first step in many important diagnostic and research procedures is the separation of blood into its constituents.

Blood separation techniques

Centrifugation is a key component of many blood separation methods. It allows for the best possible separation of blood in collection tubes. The collection tube size should be suitable for the blood separator that will be used. CAPP makes centrifuges that can be used for blood cell and blood plasma separation, as well as other applications like PPP, Stem-Cell or PPP. CAPP offers two types of blood separators to suit these diverse applications. These blood separation centrifuges can use either a swing out rotor or fixed-angle rotor. CAPP blood separator centrifuges have rotors that can handle tubes with different capacities,  (i.e., 1.5mL, 2mL, 5mL, 7mL, 10mL, or 15mL).

Blood separation with a swing-out rotor

A blood separation centrifuge with a swing-out rotating rotor will allow particles evenly to settle at the bottom. This blood separation method has one advantage: it is easy to separate blood components after centrifugation. This blood separation method has another advantage: it uses smaller centrifugal forces which results in lower energy consumption. Swing-out rotating rotors are used in blood separation in research and medical laboratories. CAPP supplies the CAPPRondo Advanced Clinical Centrifuge CRC-416X. It comes with an optional swing out rotor (6x10mL tubs) for blood separation. This high-end blood separation machine delivers centrifugal forces up to 2,270g at speeds up to 4,000 RPM.

Blood separation with a fixed-angle rotor

Some blood separation centrifuges can be used as an alternative to machines that use a swing-out rotating rotor. Fixed-angle rotor blood separators spin blood components to one side of the tube, from which they slide down to bottom. This combination of higher centrifugal forces and fixed-angle blood separators results in faster blood seperation. These blood separation machines offer a significant speed advantage. Research laboratories prefer blood separation centrifuges that have fixed-angle rotors to perform their analyses. CAPP provides two blood separation centrifuges equipped with fixed-angle rotors: the CAPPRondo Clinical Centrifuge CRC-658X and the CAPPRondo Advanced Clinifuge CRC-416X.

The CAPPRondo Basic Clinical centrifuge can accommodate 8 tubes with different capacities. It is one of the most versatile blood separation centrifuges available. The rotor can handle most common sizes of tubes, including 1.5mL to 15mL. The blood separation machine spins blood samples at up to 6,500 RPM, which corresponds to a centrifugal force equivalent to 3,873g. The CAPPRondo Advanced Clinical Centrifuge CRC-416X is at the top of the range. It features two fixed-angle rotating rotors, 8x15mL and 10mL. These blood separation machines can be used for high-efficiency, repeatable blood separation.

Recommended centrifuge speed for blood

The application of the blood is what will determine the recommended centrifuge speed. A centrifuge speed between +-4,000 and +-6,500 RPM is sufficient for most diagnostic applications. For research applications, however, a speed of +-6,000. The CAPPRondo Advanced Clinical centrifuge CRC-416X has a top speed at 4,000 RPM and a swing-out rotating rotor. It is the best blood separation centrifuge available for clinical applications. The CAPPRondo Basic Clinifuge CRC-658, and the CAPPRondo Advance Clinical Centrifuge CRC-416X are our top-rated blood separation centrifuges in research applications.

How long to centrifuge blood?

Centrifugation is fast and can be completed in under 15 minutes. It is essential that the blood sample is collected in the right tube before blood separation can be started. Let the blood sample rest on the bench for 30 minutes to an hour to allow the blood to coagulate in its collection tube. It is not recommended that the collection tube be left unrefrigerated longer than one hour before centrifuging blood. For clinical purposes, centrifuges that have a lower centrifugal force are preferable, such as the CRC-416X CAPPRondo Advanced Clinical centrifuge CRC-416X. For research applications that require quick turnover, the CAPPRondo Basic Clinical centrifuge may be used with a greater centrifugal force to achieve shorter blood separation times.

Why are white blood cells separated from red blood cells before being analyzed?

To make it easier for clinicians and researchers to analyze white blood cells, they are separated from red cells. Whole blood contains fewer white blood cells than red blood cells. Scientists would have difficulty accessing white blood cells without a blood separation step. Scientists can remove the white blood cells from their bloodstream for further analysis. Scientists use blood separation centrifuges for white blood cell separation from red blood cells. The Buffy coat is the layer of white blood cells that is found in the Buffy coat.

How does a centrifuge separate blood?

Blood separation centrifuges spin blood samples in collection tubes at high speeds. High rotation speeds create a rotational force that exerts a force on blood collection tubes, which is known as the centrifugal for its ability to spin at high speeds. The centrifugal force is what separates blood components based on their density and amount when blood collection tubes are spun in blood separation centrifuges. The blood components can be separated into layers by running blood samples through a high-quality centrifuge like the CAPPRondo Basic Clinical Centrifuge.

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Microbiology Notes is an educational niche blog related to microbiology (bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology, immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, etc.) and different branches of biology.

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