Dexamethasone: Mechanism, Application, Side effects.

MN Editors

What is Dexamethasone?

Figure: Chemical structure of dexamethasone | Image by: Maria Palmira Gremiao | Source:
      • In 1957, an American physician Philip Showalter Hench first made this drug.
      • Dexamethasone is corticosteroid medication (Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates).
      • Dexamethasone used for the treatment of rheumatic problems, a number of skin diseases, severe allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, croup, brain swelling, eye pain following eye surgery, and along with antibiotics in tuberculosis.
      • It can be used through mouth or injection into a muscle, or intravenously.
      • It takes about 1-3 days to show results.
      • It is inexpensive In the United States, less than US$25, and in India about  38.05 rupees.
Word Guess Challenge
Only 1% of users are able to solve this challenge.

Guess the word hidden in this story

Medical Use of Dexamethasone

      • Dexamethasone can be used as an Anti-inflammatory for treatments of inflammatory and autoimmune disease, for example, rheumatoid arthritis and bronchospasm.
      • Dexamethasoneoften given to cancer patients who undergoes chemotherapy, to counteract certain side effects of their antitumor treatments.
      • It is used as Endocrine, for the treatment of very rare disease glucocorticoid resistance.
      • Dexamethasone given to pregnant women from the day to one week before delivery, to promote maturation of the fetus’ lungs.
      • Dexamethasoneoften also used for the treatment of high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), and high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE).
      • Dexamethasoneoften Intravenously given to those patients who had surgery and whose post-operative pain was treated with long-acting spinal or epidural spinal opioids to prebent the nausea and vomiting.
      • A single drop of Dexamethasone can help in speed improvement of sore throat.

Mechanism of Dexamethasone

      • Dexamethasone thought to act by the induction of phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, which is known as lipocortins. 
      • This is achieved first by the Dexamethasone binding to the glucocorticoid receptors.
      • Then translocates into the nucleus and binds to DNA causing various activations and repressions of genes.
      • It is postulated that these proteins control the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes by inhibiting the release of their common precursor arachidonic acid.
      • Arachidonic acid is released from membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2.

Side effect of Dexamethasone

      • It can cause infection in mouth, if someone takes it by oral route.
      • Dexamethasone also can cause bone loss.
      • It can cause vision loss in eyes which is known as cataracts.
      • Dexamethasone can weaken the blood vessels and muscle, which can results easy bruising.
      • Other common side effects of Dexamethasone are; Increased appetite, Weight gain, Impaired skin healing, Depression, Hypertension, Increased risk of infection, Raised intraocular pressure, Vomiting, Dyspepsia, Confusion, Amnesia, Irritability, Nausea, Malaise, Headache, etc.

Also Read: Bacterial toxin: Definition, Types, Example.

We hope you've enjoyed reading our latest blog article! We're thrilled to see the positive response it's been receiving so far. We understand that sometimes, after going through an interesting piece of content, you might have questions or want to delve deeper into the topic.

To facilitate meaningful discussions and encourage knowledge sharing, we've set up a dedicated QNA Forum page related to this specific article. If you have any questions, comments, or thoughts you'd like to share, we invite you to visit the QNA Forum.

QNA Forum Page

Feel free to ask your questions or participate in ongoing discussions. Our team of experts, as well as fellow readers, will be active on the forum to engage with you and provide insightful answers.Remember, sharing your thoughts not only helps you gain a deeper understanding but also contributes to the community's growth and learning. We look forward to hearing from you and fostering an enriching discussion.Thank you for being a part of our journey!

Leave a Comment