Difference Between Biotic and Abiotic Factors – Biotic vs Abiotic Factors

What is Biotic Factors?

The biotic factor , also known as the component of the biotic refers to the living thing that creates the ecosystem.

Biotic elements include bacteria, plants, animals and algae, as well as all other living things that make up an ecosystem. The ecosystem is a complicated system that includes living and non-living objects The living component of the system is composed of biotic elements. Biotic factors are all the consumers, producers and decomposers responsible for the process of transformation and transportation of energy via the food chain. These biotic elements are also responsible for outbreaks and diseases. Producers are the organisms that produce their own food sources through processes such as photosynthesis.


The majority of producers utilize photosynthesis for converting solar power into chemical energy. However, different autotrophs also make use of other processes such as chemotrophy and phototrophy. All plants that are green have chlorophyll, which is the pigment that photosynthesizes for the photosynthesis process. Other pigments, such as bacterial Rhodopsin and carotenoids can be found in algae, bacteria phytoplankton, and algae for photosynthesis. Certain food producers create food through the process of chemosynthesis that derives fuel from chemical reactions instead of sunlight.

Consumers are the group of organisms that eat producers, either directly or indirectly, to obtain fuel and for food. Consumers are categorized into distinct different trophic levels, including primary and secondary consumers. Secondary consumers. Primarily consumers are herbivores who are depend on autotrophs or producers. The secondary consumers in turn consume the primary consumers. The ecosystem’s biotic elements are responsible for the capture of energy needed to convert organic compounds from inorganic substances. Biotic factors, along with abiotic influences, determine the character of the ecosystem along with ecological niches.


Examples of Biotic Factors


Humans are among the most significant biotic factors which affect the quality of the natural environment as well as the lives of living things. Due to various technological advances humans have significantly altered the ecosystem of the globe along with other natural changes to the climate. One of the clearest instances of this is the impact of human activity in the carbon cycle. Because of the growing automotive and industrial production an enormous amount of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere which directly impacts the climate as well as the air quality of the entire world. Other actions like deforestation or urbanization have caused huge changes to the quantity and quality of land, soil and water. These changes result in rapid climate changes that lead to the mass extermination of numerous organisms. Humans therefore act as the most powerful biotic elements in any eco-system.


Cyanobacteria are considered to be the first living organisms that ever live on earth. The single-celled autotrophic microorganisms had essential roles in the creation or altering the ecosystem of the world to its current state. They were responsible for storing solar energy as well as making use of it to convert of inorganic carbon compounds to organic compounds. Before the appearance of cyanobacteria there was no oxygen on the planet. Therefore, they utilized anaerobic respiration for a process of metabolism for the production of food. Cyanobacteria also play a role in making oxygen using carbon dioxide. As oxygen was released and carbon dioxide, many different organisms emerged. As more advanced and sophisticated organisms developed on earth the cyanobacteria nearly went extinct. They adapted however to the changing conditions through the formation of blooms in different areas of the globe.


What is Abiotic Factors?

The abiotic or abiotic components of ecosystems are the non-living chemical and physical nature of the composition.

Abiotic elements include things such as sunlight, water resources soil, air, rocks as well as tides, temperature rainfall, humidity, and temperature and many more. These elements influence the growth, survival and reproductive capabilities of living organisms as well as their role in the ecological system. The resources of the environment can be utilized by different living organisms, or become unavailable to living organisms following their use in other species.


Natural degrading of different substances like chemicals or rocks can be accomplished through hydrolysis, or any other physical process. Abiotic factors comprise living organisms that are non-living, such as conditions in the atmosphere as well as water resources. The abiotic element of an ecosystem is also dependant according to the nature of the ecosystem. Sand plays a crucial role as an abiotic component within the ecosystem of deserts while rainfall is an abiotic factor within the forest ecosystem of tropical forests.

Sound waves and pressure are the abiotic constituents of the marine ecosystem as well as other aspects such as water clarity as well as aerial exposure and tides in the water. The biotic elements of various ecosystems adjust to the abiotic conditions specific to the ecosystem. A good example is the archaea in harsh environments, which rely on the biotic factors to ensure their survival and development. Abiotic factors also impact the living organisms in ecosystems. Based on the capabilities to adapt, those species that are able to withstand these abiotic elements will thrive in these ecosystems. Sometimes, these elements may alter the character of various ecosystems. Insufficient rainfall could turn an oceanic ecosystem to a desert ecosystem.


Examples of Abiotic Factors


Temperature is among the most important abiotic factors that affect the speed of metabolic reactions and, consequently the longevity of different biochemical elements. As temperatures rise the speed of enzyme-catalyzed reaction increases too. But, this only happens at a certain level. When the temperature keeps growing, these enzymes may be denatured. The denaturation of essential enzymes can stop different chemical reactions, which affects the existence of all living things. In the same way, temperature brings changes in the nature of living organisms that are found in the ecosystem. Only extremeophiles and species capable of standing up to such extreme temperatures can thrive in such ecosystems. Similar conditions occur at lower temperatures as in mountain areas and higher elevations.

Light availability

The amount of sunlight available is another significant abiotic factor which affects photosynthetic rate among producers. It also influences the cycles of breeding in animals. The availability of light in turn, is contingent on other environmental elements such as water cycles, rainfall and various other processes. In the absence of oxygen, long periods of time impacts the process of producing food in animals. The result is a negative impact on the whole ecosystem.


Toxins and pollutants

Pollutants and toxins of all types can be harmful to living components of the ecosystem. They can affect the metabolism and tissues pathways of living organisms. In the end, some diseases may be observed. Additionally, they can influence the weather, and in turn impacts other abiotic variables such as humidity and rainfall.

Difference Between Biotic and Abiotic Factors – Biotic vs Abiotic Factors

Basis for ComparisonBiotic elementsAbiotic influences
DefinitionThe biotic or bio-component can be described as the organism living that forms an ecosystem.Abiotic elements or abiotic constituents of ecosystems are the non-living chemical and physical nature of the composition.
DependencyBiotic elements depend on abiotic factors to ensure their existence and growth.Abiotic factors don’t rely on biotic elements for their existence.
MeasurementMeasurement of the biochemical component is subjective.The assessment of the abiotic component is objective.
RelationshipLiving organisms may be related directly or indirectly to other living organisms within an ecosystem.Abiotic factors determine the quantity and kind of living organisms inside an ecological.
AdaptationBiotic elements are able to adapt to the changes occurring in their surrounding environment.Abiotic organisms aren’t able to change according to environment’s conditions.
Limiting factorsChanges in one biotic element rarely lead to change in another group.Changes in any abiotic component can result in major changes in the biological elements.
ComponentsBiotic factors comprise a wide range of species of animals, plants and algae which act as producers, consumers or decomposers.Abiotic influences include topography of the soil, climate, as well as natural disturbances in the ecosystem.
ResourcesBiotic resources refer to forests and products from forests, as well as marine resources, such as fish, for example.Abiotic resources comprise soil, water, land and coal.
AssociationBiotic factors can form various interactions like parasitism, symbiosis and predator-prey relationships.There is no evidence of such associations between abiotic variables.
ExamplesInsects, human beings wild animals birds, bacteria, etc. are a few examples of biotic elements.Soil, rainfall, humidity, temperature, pH, climate, etc. are a few examples of abiotic influences.

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