What is Chromosome?
- A Chromosome is a thread-like form found in the nucleus or nuclear region of cytoplasm. It’s made of one DNA molecule (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and proteins, which carry certain or all of the genetic materials in an organism.
- The chromosomes can only be seen under a microscope that is light-sensitive during the metaphase phase of the cell cycle, when the chromosomes are aligned in the middle within the cell.
- Prokaryotes share one circular chromosome which is located in the nucleoid area of the cytoplasm since they lack the nucleus localized.
- Extrachromosomal DNA may be found in some prokaryotes ‘ cell cytoplasm, in the form of plasmids. They play a role with horizontal transfer of genes.
- In the instance of eukaryotic organisms the chromosomes are linked with packaging proteins, which prevent chromosomes to become unmanageable.
- Eukaryotic chromosomes are packed into the chromatin structure, which is a condensed form. by the fibers that make up chromatin. Because chromosomes are compressed they are able to pack the extremely long chromosomes into the nucleus.
- A third chromosome could exist outside of the nucleus of mitochondria and chloroplasts of a few eukaryotes.
- The structure of the chromosome shifts throughout the life cycle. Chromosomes may uncoil, multiply and divide in different stages that occur during cell division.
- Chromosomes in humans can be divided into two kinds: autosomes, also known as body chromosomes as well as allosomes which are also known as sexual the chromosomes.
- Humans possess 23 pairs of human chromosomes. They have two pairs of autosomes as well as the sexual chromosomes, which comprise an overall total of 46 chromosomes.
- They carry all the genetic material required for a range of functions, from the creation of proteins, reproduction and division.
- Chromosomes are highly controlled structures that play a role in ensuring the genetic diversity of species that reproduce sexually. When asexual reproduction occurs, the chromosomes are duplicated and the same genetic material gets transferred to the cells that are daughter cells.
- When sexual reproduction occurs genetic variation comes through the process of cross-breeding during meiosis.
- A defect in the chromosomes can cause a variety of chromosomal diseases and, in some cases, mutations in the genes could result in cancer.
What is Chromatid?
- A chromatid is a corresponding portion of a duplicated copy of a chromosome. After the duplication of a chromosome two identical halves are formed, one of which is referred to as the”chromatid..
- Chromatids are not as condensed as the chromosomes since they are formed after the chromosome is uncoiled.
- The chromatids are formed by the same chromosome are connected through a centromere, and are referred to as sister chromatids.
- However, they can be present in the form of non-sister chromatids, where two chromatids of two different chromosomes are linked by chiasmata in order to transfer of DNA.
- Chromatids only exist in the process of cell division, when the chromosome reproduces, increasing the amount of DNA. The DNA is later divided into two chromatids each of which contains the identical genetic information.
- As cell division proceeds as cells divide, chromatids break up and grow into individual chromosomes.
- Therefore, chromatids are merely temporary structures which are there to assist in an chromosome’s process duplication as well as separation.
- Since chromatids are the same They are also considered homozygous. However, in some instances due to mutations, modifications could occur in either or both homozygous chromatids.
- Chromatids play a significant role in the process of meiosis cell division. In the first phase of meiosis I non-sister chromatids (one from the paternal chromosome as well as another of the mother chromosome) create charismata in order to exchange DNA.
- This is a crucial aspect of sexual reproduction since it helps to ensure the genetic diversity and diversity within the species.
- Chromatids are not chromosomes and cannot transcribing proteins.
Key Differences between Chromosome and Chromatid (Chromosome vs Chromatid)
|Basis for Comparison||Chromosome||Chromatid|
|Definition||A Chromosome is a thread-like form located in the nucleus, or the nuclear region of the cytoplasm. It is composed only one DNA molecule as well as proteins that carry some or all the genetic material of an organism.||A chromatid can be described as an identical part of a duplicated the chromosome. When a chromosome is duplicated two halves that are identical to each other are created, both of which are referred to as chromatids.|
|Compactness||Chromosomes are less condensed than chromatids.||Chromatids are not as condensed as the chromosomes.|
|Consists of||A chromosome is made up of only a single DNA double-stranded molecule.||Chromatids comprise two molecules made up of double-stranded DNA, joined in the middle by the centromere.|
|Structure||Chromosomes have a thin , ribbon-like structure.||Chromatids have a thin , large fibrous structure.|
|Nature||Homologous chromosomes do not have the same chemistry to one another.||Homologous and Homozygous sister chromosomes have the same chromosomes.|
|DNA||DNA on chromosomes is extremely compact.||DNA molecules are unharmed and therefore is unharmed.|
|Present||Chromosomes are found in every cell throughout their lives.||Chromatids form in the interphase phase and remain up to the time of metaphase cell division.|
|Centromeres||The chromosomes do not have centromeres.||Chromatids are linked to the center via the centromere.|
|Duplication||Chromosomes can be used for replication or duplicate.||Chromatids are unable to replicate or duplicate.|
|Protein synthesis||The genetic information found in chromosomes could be transscribed to create proteins.||Chromatids don’t play a part in macromolecule synthesis , like protein synthesis.|
|Function||Chromosomes contain genetic material, and therefore are involved in the transmission of genetic material between various species of life.||Chromatids are essential to ensure the right amount of DNA cells following cell division.|
How are Chromosome and Chromatid Related to Each Other
As we are aware that a chromosome is made up of only one DNA molecule which is doubled during phase of division in cells. So, every chromosome has two DNA strands that are interphased and every DNA strand can be described as chromatid. For higher-level organisms double-stranded DNA wraps around specific class of proteins known as histones. The connection of a double-stranded DNA and its histone proteins is referred to as the chromatin. We can therefore conclude that chromatid and the chromosome are closely related and have the same fundamental structure.
What are the Similarities Between Chromosome and Chromatid?
- Chromosomes and the chromatids are made through DNA molecules.
- They are found in the nucleus.
- Both have genetic information and are associated with heredity.
- They are connected to histone proteins.