Difference Between Communicable and non-communicable diseases

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Difference Between Communicable and non-communicable diseases

Also known as transmissible diseases, or infectious diseases, communicable diseases can also be called transmissible diseases. The infectious agent is transmitted to...

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This article writter by MN Editors on January 17, 2022

Microbiology Notes is an educational niche blog related to microbiology (bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology, immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, etc.) and different branches of biology.

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What is Communicable diseases?

Communicable diseases refer to diseases that can be spread from infected people to animals or other humans.

Also known as transmissible diseases, or infectious diseases, communicable diseases can also be called transmissible diseases. The infectious agent is transmitted to others by contact with bodily fluids, bodily fluids, bites of insects, and air. Infectious diseases can spread either directly or indirectly. Direct transmission means that the infectious agent is transmitted through close physical contact. In indirect transmission, it is spread through air, water or other vectors.

The incubation period is the time that the agents remain in the body of a healthy person. After this time, symptoms of the disease start to manifest. Most cases of infectious disease are eliminated by the body’s immune system. The disease can only occur when an organism is not protected by the immune system. Some diseases that are communicable might only be found in certain seasons. Malaria, which is most common during the breeding season for female mosquitoes, is an example.

While the symptoms of communicable disease may vary depending on the type of the disease, common symptoms include fever, headaches, muscle pain, fatigue, and diarrhea. Acute diseases include those that manifest quickly. However, communicable diseases are not considered serious as treatment is available for them.

Examples of communicable diseases

Diarrhea

Diarrhea refers to loose, frequent, and more fluid bowel movements that last a few days. Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhea among children. Norwalk virus and cytomegalovirus are other viruses that can cause diarrhea in children. Other factors, such as bacteria, medications and lactogen intolerance can also cause diarrhea. can cause diarrhea. Diarrhea can cause loose, watery stool, diarrhea-like symptoms such as abdominal cramps, loose, watery stool and fever.

Diarrhea may lead to dehydration which can prove fatal if left untreated. A few of the most common preventive measures include washing your hands often, using soap and maintaining good hygiene. The administration of vaccines can help to treat rotavirus. Traveler’s diarrhea can be treated by ensuring that the person is careful about what they eat, and how clean they are.

HIV/AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) can be a life-threatening, chronic condition caused by the human immune deficiency virus (HIV). HIV is a sexually transmitted disease that weakens your immune system. HIV can become AIDS if left untreated for 8-10 years. HIV can be spread by blood contact, sexual contact, and from mother to child during pregnancy. The flu-like symptoms can be milder and more phase-specific. Most people get it within two to four week of the virus’s entry into their bodies.

One of the signs that HIV infection is early is swelling of lymph nodes. The virus can cause persistent white spots and other unusual lesions to appear on the victim’s lips as the disease progresses. HIV infection is most likely to be contracted through unprotected sexual activity and IV drug use.

HIV can weaken the immune system and lead to many infections, including candidiasis (PCP), tuberculosis (TBP), pneumocystis pneumonia, and others. HIV is not spread by touching, hugging, kissing or shaking hands. The virus can’t be spread by touching, hugging, kissing or biting insects. Although there are no HIV vaccines or AIDS cures, certain antibiotics can slow down the virus’ progression.

What is Non-communicable diseases?

Non-communicable disease is a condition that cannot be transmitted from one person to another. They are usually caused by poor lifestyle choices and unhealthy eating habits.

Non-communicable illnesses are also known as non-infectious or contagious diseases. These diseases are not caused by infectious agents such as bacteria or viruses. They do not spread from infected people to healthy individuals. A majority of non-communicable illnesses are due to a poor diet and lifestyle. Other causes, such as mutations, heredity, and environmental changes, can also cause non-communicable illnesses. Non-communicable disease, unlike communicable, can occur anytime of the year.

Some diseases, such as diabetes and cancer, can even be passed down from one generation to another. These diseases can be more difficult to diagnose because they are often chronic and appear slowly. Many non-communicable illnesses can have severe and lasting health consequences. There may be periods of temporary relapse in some chronic non-communicable illnesses. This is when the disease disappears temporarily and then reappears again.

The non-communicable diseases account for around 70% of all deaths in the world. Non-communicable disease is not curable. The available medications simply stop the disease from getting worse. Non-communicable illnesses are generally not curable. It is important to have a healthy lifestyle and eat a balanced diet, as well as regular check-ups.

Examples of Non-communicable diseases

Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic non-communicable condition in which the blood glucose or sugar levels are higher than normal.

There are two types of diabetes.

  • Type 1 diabetes is when the body’s immune system attacks healthy cells, such as the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. This mistakenly considers them foreign invaders.
  • Type 2 diabetes is when the body can’t use insulin properly, leading to an increase in blood sugar levels.

Diabetes symptoms are usually not obvious and often appear slowly over time. There may be complications once the symptoms start to appear. Diabetes is most common in older men. It is often associated with poor dietary habits. Diabetes could even be inherited. Although there is no cure, medications can be used to manage the symptoms.

Cancer

Cancer is a non-communicable illness that includes a variety of diseases due to uncontrolled cell division. It can spread to other parts of the body. Tobacco use, obesity, poor diet and alcohol intake are the most common causes of this disease. Sometimes, cancer can even be due to a genetic condition. Many cancers can cause symptoms such as a lump, prolonged cough, abnormal bleeding, weight loss, and rapid blood loss. There may be other causes for these symptoms. A biopsy is the most important diagnostic test for cancer. This involves examining a portion of the tissue to detect cancerous cells. Preventive measures against cancer can include a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as other chronic diseases.

Difference Between Communicable and non-communicable diseases

Basis for ComparisonCommunicable DiseasesNon-communicable disease
DefinitionCommunicable diseases refer to diseases that can be spread from infected people to animals or other humans.Non-communicable disease is a condition that cannot be transmitted from one person to another. They are usually caused by poor lifestyle choices and unhealthy eating habits.
Also known asAlso known as infectious diseases, communicable diseases can also be called infectious diseases.Chronic diseases can also be referred to as non-communicable illnesses.
ProgressionThey are more likely to occur quickly and they are also more likely to be acute.They are more likely to be chronic. This means they will last longer and progress slowly.
SeasonalSome diseases may be seasonal.Non-communicable disease aren’t seasonal and can occur at any time.
CauseThe primary cause of communicable disease is caused by pathogenic microorganisms.These can be caused by nutritional deficiency or hormonal deficiency.
InheritedIt is not possible to pass on communicable diseases from one generation of parents to the next.It is possible that non-communicable disease can be passed from one generation to the next.
Agents/VectorsViral, fungi and bacteria are agents/vectors of infection and transmission.As non-communicable disease are primarily dependent on diet, allergies, and physical activity, there is no way to infect them.
SpreadThere are many reasons that communicable diseases can spread. It can be spread by direct contact with food or surfaces contaminated by bacteria.They do not spread easily from one person to the next.
Organs affectedCommon communicable diseases include common colds, influenza, and tuberculosis.There are many non-communicable illnesses, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
SymptomsThe symptoms of communicable disease can be detected as soon as the pathogen has entered the body.Non-communicable disease symptoms may not manifest until after a year, which can increase the chance of it being fatal.
SeverityThese are usually less severe. They are less severe and can be a threat to the patient’s health in the short-term.These diseases are more serious and cause more deaths around the world. These diseases can also have long-term consequences for the patient’s life.
RelapseInfectious diseases cannot be relapsed.Multiple relapses may occur during the course of the disease.
DiagnosisAccurate diagnostic tests are available for many communicable illnesses.For most non-communicable illnesses, accurate diagnostic tests are not possible.
TreatmentThese conditions can be treated quickly.They require prolonged treatment.
CurabilityAlmost all communicable illnesses can be treated, except HIV/AIDS.There is no cure for non-communicable conditions like diabetes and cancer.
PreventionYou can prevent these from happening by following some traditional methods, such as keeping your hygiene high, not sharing eating utensils, and so on.These patients require special surgical procedures.
ExamplesExamples of communicable diseases include typhoid and cholera as well as malaria, tuberculosis and leprosy.Non-communicable diseases include cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease.
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