Proteomics and Genomics are two major areas of molecular biology. Genomes are the biological material that makes up an organism. It contains genes that contain the information about genetics of organisms (genetic code). The research conducted to uncover the information contained in the genome is called genomics. The nucleotide sequence of genes determines an amino acid structure of the protein through DNA code. Genes are translated into mRNA, which is then transformed to create proteins. The proteome is the entire set of expressed proteins in an organism. The research conducted to determine the specific characteristics function, structure, functions and expressions of the complete proteins in the cell is known as proteomics. The main difference between proteomics and genomics can be seen in the fact that genomics is an part of molecular biology that examines the genes of an organism, whereas proteomics is a subfield of molecular biology, which analyzes the whole set of proteins within cells. Genomic studies are essential to comprehend the function, structure and location of genes in an organism. Proteomics studies are useful because proteins are the true functional molecules of cells, and they represent the real-time physiological conditions.
What is Genomics?
Genomics is the science of studying the complete gene pool of an animal. It is a significant field of molecular science that involves the use of recombinant DNA technology as well as DNA sequencing and Bioinformatics to study the nature and function of the genome (organisms comprised of DNA). DNA is comprised of four bases. the genetic information inside the gene can be written using four languages that are essential to create the organism. Genes are responsible to make proteins. They are the DNA components which carry instructions to make a particular Protein or set of protein within the cell. Thus, the studies conducted on genes are crucial in understanding the complicated conditions and genetic disorders and mutations, crucial gene regulation interaction between genes, environmental factors, determining the cause of disease in the development of therapies and treatments as well as other. Therefore, studies on genomics are extremely important as they address the entire gene family and their interactions and behaviors.
The objectives that were the focus of Human Genome Project were:
- To find all (approximately between 20,000 and 25,000) human genome’s genes,
- To discover the entire genome sequences (approximately three billion base pair chemical) that make up the human genomes.
- To save this data in databases
- To enhance tools for data analysis
- Transfer related technology to private companies and
- To address ethical and legal concerns (ELSI) which may result from the project.
What is Proteomics?
Proteins are macromolecules that are present within cells. They are essential for a variety of functional functions within an organism. Nearly all chemical reactions in the body are catalyzed through the proteins that are present in cells. Genes are stored as instructions that are genetic to create proteins. The genetic code is converted into an amino acids sequence that determines the specific protein. This process is referred to as gene expression. When needed genes are expressed, they are synthesized into proteins. The whole set of proteins in cells is known as the proteome. The research into your cell’s proteome can be referred to as proteomics. The properties, structures interactions, and roles of proteins are investigated using proteomics to study how proteins influence functions of the cell.
Organisms are home to thousands of proteins that perform a range of purposes within cells. Genomic studies provide crucial information for proteomic research since genes are the mRNA molecules that encode and mRNA encodes proteins. Studies on proteomics are crucial in a variety of fields. This is especially relevant to the field of cancer biology. It can be utilized to identify abnormal proteins that cause cancer.
Difference between Genomics and Proteomics – Genomics vs Proteomics
|Definition||Genomics is the science of studying genomes, which refers to the entire gene pool or genetic material that is present within a living organism or cell.||Proteomics is the field of molecular biology which examines the proteins that are expressed by the genome of an organism.|
|Research into||Geneomics studies genes within an organism.||The study is of all proteins that make up a cell.|
|Unit under Study||Research into the functions of genomes||Study of the functions of proteomes.|
|Nature of Study Material||The genome is a constant. Every single cell in an organism is able to have the identical gene set.||The proteome is ever-changing and fluctuates. The amount of proteins made in various tissues differs depending on the expression of genes.|
|Utilization of High Throughput techniques||High-throughput technologies are utilized in genomics field to create maps, sequences, and analyse genomes.||In proteomics, the characterization of the 3D structure as well as the role of proteins is performed by means of high-throughput methods.|
|Techniques involved||The methods used in genomics encompass strategies for gene sequencing including targeted gene sequencing and whole genome shotgun sequence as well as the construction of express sequence tags (ESTs) and the identification SNPs, or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and an analysis of and interpretation of the sequenced information using various databases and software.||The techniques involved in proteomics are the extraction and electrophoretic extraction of proteins. the digestion of proteins using trypsin to break them into smaller fragments as well as the determination of amino acid sequence through mass spectrometry, and the identification of proteins based on the information contained in the protein databases. Furthermore, the 3D shape of the protein could be predicted by using software-based techniques. Protein expression can be studied using microarrays of protein. Protein-network maps can be created to study interactions between proteins and proteins.|
|Types||Two types of genomes include structural genomics as well as functional genomics.||The three kinds of proteomics include structural, functional, and expression.|
|Important Areas||Genome sequencing projects like The Human Genome Project are among the most important fields of genomics.||Proteome database development, such as SWISS-2DPAGE, as well as the development of software for computer-aided drug design are most important fields of proteomics.|
|Importance||The study of genes is essential in understanding the function, structure and function, as well as the location, regulation and structure of genes in an organism.||The study of the whole range of proteins created by a cell type is carried out to discover its structure and purpose.|
|Significance||Genes found in the nucleus might not accurately reflect the conditions within the cell because of regulation at the protein and RNA level, which can’t be observed in Genomics research.||Proteomics research is more beneficial due to the fact that proteins function as the main cell molecules and reflect real-time circumstances.|