Differences

Difference between innate and acquired immunity

Innate immunity is the naturally-occurring immunity generated through genetic factors and the body's physiology.   Innate immunity begins at birthand continues throughout one's life. 

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This article writter by MN Editors on November 01, 2021

Microbiology Notes is an educational niche blog related to microbiology (bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology, immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, etc.) and different branches of biology.

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Difference between innate and acquired immunity
Difference between innate and acquired immunity

Innate Immunity

  • Innate immunity is the naturally-occurring immunity generated through genetic factors and the body’s physiology.  
  • Innate immunity begins at birthand continues throughout one’s life. 
  • The prior exposure to pathogens is not required by the innate immunity. 
  • The removal of pathogens via the natural immunity happens either in the internal organs or outwardly. 
  • External defense functions as the first line of defense against pathogens and is accomplished through the biological and chemical barrier. 
  • Saliva, tears mucus linings, stomach acid, and a few of the bacteria that reside in the gut function as barriers that prevent the entry of pathogens into cells of your body. 
  • The second line of defense is the defense mechanisms within the immune system that is innate. 
  • Different types of phagocytes function as internal barriers, stopping the proliferation and growth of pathogens in the tissues. 
  • Macrophages, natural killer cells neutrophils, monocytes, mast cells and dendritic cell are examples of cells that are involved in immune system’s innate. These cells kill pathogens via their phagocytosis. They also stimulate the complement system in the body and also adaptive immunity. 
  • Both internal and external mechanisms of innate immunity produce non-specific immune responses to pathogens.

Adaptive Immunity

  • Adaptive immunity is a term used to describe an acquired immunity controlled by T cells and B cells. 
  • It is distinguished by an immunelogical memory. It is the third line of defense of the body. 
  • The activation of adaptive immunity happens as a result of an overthrow of the second line barrier caused by a particular pathogen. 
  • Cell-mediated immunity and humoral immune are the two kinds that are adaptive.
  • Cell-mediated immunity is caused by cytotoxic T cells which cause the death of the infected cells. 
  • Helper T cells are the second kind of T cells which stimulate B cells to create antibodies. 
  • Producing specific antibody to specific pathogens occurs within humoral immunity. Because of its capacity to be able to react to a vast range of pathogens immunity is thought to have more variety. 
  • After it has responded to a specific pathogen it’s adaptive immune system stores the pathogen’s memory and develops a robust immune response after the second exposure.
Difference between innate and acquired immunity
Image Source: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Cellular-components-of-the-mammalian-immune-system-The-mammalian-immune-system-consists_fig2_332777013

Difference between innate and acquired immunity

CharacteristicsInnate ImmunityAdaptive Immunity
DefinitionThis refers to the natural-occurring immunity that is triggered by the genetic components and the body’s physiology.Adaptive immune is a term used to describe an acquired immunity that is dependent on T cells and B cells. It is also characterized by an immune memory.
Alternative NamesInnate Immunity is referred to by its natural Immunity.It is also known as acquired immunity.
SpecificityInnate immunity generates a non-specific immune response.Adaptive immunity generates a specific immune response.
PresenceInnate immunity is always present in the body.Adaptive immunity only occurs in response to exposure to an external factor.
ResponseSince innate immunity provides the first line defense against the pathogens, it generates a rapid response.Adaptive immunity is delayed 5-6 days.
ComponentsPlasma proteins, phagocytes, physical and chemical barriers are the components of the innate immunity.Humoral and cell-mediated immunity are the components of the adaptive immunity.
Physical and Chemical BarriersTemperature, pH, skin, and mucous membranes are the barriers of the innate immunity.Lymph nodes, spleen, and lymphoid tissues are the barriers of the adaptive immunity.
Memory CellsInnate immunity does not develop memory cells.Adaptive immunity develops memory cells.
DiversityInnate immunity possesses a less diversity.Adaptive immunity possesses a higher diversity.
PotencyInnate immunity is less potent.Adaptive immunity exhibits a higher potency.
Allergic ReactionsInnate immunity does not produce allergic reactions.Adaptive immunity develops allergic reactions; immediate and delayed hypersensitivity.
Activation of the Complement SystemInnate immunity activates the complement system through the alternative and lectin pathway.Adaptive immunity activates the complement system through the classical pathway.
Time SpanOnce developed for a particular pathogen, the innate immunity remains throughout the lifetime.Adaptive immunity can last for the lifetime or for a short period of time.
InheritanceInnate immunity is inheritable.Adaptive immunity is not inheritable.
Cells involvedDendritic leukocyte, Natural
killer cells, Mast cell, Granulocytes/ Macrophages, Basophils, etc.
Killer CD8+ T-cells, Helper CD4+ T-cells, B-cells, Antigen presenting cells, etc.
Molecules involvedCytokines, Complement cells, Interferon, Acute phase reactants/ proteinsAntibodies, Cytokines
ReceptorsGermline encoded
No somatic rearrangement
Non-clonal distribution
Encoded in gene segments
Somatic rearrangement necessary
Clonal distribution
Action timeImmediate effector activationDelayed effector activation
Order of defenceIt is the first line of defense of immune systemAction against pathogens that are able to evade or overcome innate immune defense
Subsequent exposureImmune response does not get alter on repeated exposure .Immune response get improves with subsequent exposure.
Allery orNoneImmediate and delay
Reason behind immune evasion
Caused by pathogenic virulenceCaused by mutation of the recognized antigen
DevelopmentEvolutionary, older and is found in both vertebrates and invertebrates.Adaptive immunity system has been developed recently and is found only in the vertebrates.
DiversityLimitedHigh
ExamplesThe redness and swelling caused by white blood cells around a wound is an example of an innate immune response.Vaccination against a virus is an example of adaptive immunity.

References

  • https://pediaa.com/difference-between-innate-and-adaptive-immunity/
  • https://microbiologyinfo.com/difference-between-innate-and-adaptive-immunity/
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