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Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

TOPICPROKARYOTIC CELLEUKARYOTIC CELL
Cell TypeSingle-cellMulticellular
Cell Size0.5-3um2-100um
Cell WallCell wall present, comprise of peptidoglycan or mucopeptide (polysaccharide).Usually cell wall absent, if present (plant cells and fungus), comprises of cellulose (polysaccharide).
Number of chromosomesOne–but not true chromosome: PlasmidsMore than one
Ribosome Subunits70s80s
Ribosomes Sizesmallerlarger
MitochondriaAbsentPresent
Shape of DNACircular, double-stranded DNA.Linear, double-stranded DNA.
Presence of NucleusWell-defined nucleus is absent, rather ‘nucleoid’ is present which is an open region containing DNA.A well-defined nucleus is present enclosed within nuclear memebrane.
Cell ComplexitySimplerMore complex
MicrotubulesAbsent or rarePresent
Golgi ApparatusAbsentPresent
Endoplasmic ReticulumAbsentPresent
Mode of ReproductionAsexualMost commonly sexual
Transcription and TranslationOccurs together.Transcription occurs in nucleus and translation in cytosol.
Chloroplast(Absent) scattered in the cytoplasm.Present in plants, algae.
Lysosomes and PeroxisomesAbsentPresent
Genetic RecombinationPartial, undirectional transfers DNAMeiosis and fusion of gametes
FlagellaSubmicroscopic in size, composed of only one fiberMicroscopic in size; membrane bound; usually arranged as nine doublets surrounding two singlets
Permeability of Nuclear Membranenot presentSelective
Plasma membrane with steroidUsually noYes
VacuolesPresentPresent
DNA wrapping on proteins.Multiple proteins act together to fold and condense prokaryotic DNA. Folded DNA is then organized into a variety of conformations that are supercoiled and wound around tetramers of the HU protein.Eukaryotes wrap their DNA around proteins called histones.
Cell DivisonBinary Fission,
(conjugation, transformation, transduction)
Mitosis
OrganellesOrganelles are not membrane bound, if present any.Organelles are membrane-bound and are specific in function.
ReplicationSingle origin of replication.Multiple origins of replication.
Number of ChromosomesOnly one (not true called as a plasmid).More than one.
ExamplesArchaea, Bacteria.Plants and Animals.

Reference

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