What is Bacteria?
Bacteria are single-celled microscopic species that are distinguished in the absence of an incipient nucleus as well as a few organelles that have no membranes.
Bacteria vary in shape size, color, and shape as well as their environments differ, ranging from soil water, and the interiors in living living things. Bacteria can be found in different shapes such as cocci, bacillus or spirilla in which the cells are placed in clusters or chains. There are several kinds of bacteria, with some being pathogenic while the others are not harmful or even beneficial. The pathogenic bacteria have a capid as their outermost cover that is used to protect.
Based on staining methods the bacteria are divided by Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The distinction in staining is because of the different structural features inside the cell walls of diverse bacteria. It is comprised of peptidoglycan which guards the cell membrane as well as the other organelles within. The cell wall contains the cell membrane. It is comprised of a phospholipid bilayer and globular proteins.
The cytoplasm contains an unicellular nucleus as well as Ribosomes. The genetic material found in bacteria is mostly DNA that is not connected to histone proteins. Extrachromosomal DNA can be found in certain bacteria as part of the blood plasmid. Reproduction occurs via budding, binary fission and fragmentation. However, different methods such as transduction, transformation, and conjugation are used to transfer genetic material. Bacteria can be producers (chemoautotrophs) as well as consumers (heterotrophs) and can even be decomposers.
Examples of Bacteria
Escherichia coli (E. coli)
E. Coli is an example microorganism that is used in different research studies. The organisms can be present in a variety of settings, and the majority of them are located in the lower intestines of human beings as well as others warm blooded mammals. The majority of species that are E. coli are harmless However, some may cause diarrhea that is mild to extreme. Certain microbes can even create Vitamin K and Vitamin B-12. E. Coli is a Gram-negative , facultative anaerobe which thrives at temperatures of room temperature. It’s rod-shaped and has a shorter lifecycle making it suitable to conduct research. E. Coli are not spore-producing and possess peritrichous flagella.
Salmonella Typhi is a pathogenic organism that causes digestive tract, bloodstream of other living organisms and humans. The result is illness that ranges from mild typhoid to life-threatening Septic shock. S. Typhi is Gram-negative organisms that have rod-shaped forms and are not spore-forming with flagella peritrichous. Salmonella Enterica Serotype Typhi is most often contracted through eating food or drinking water that has been contaminated by the feces of people who contain the organism. Chemotrophs are organisms that generate energy via an oxidation reaction. They are facultative anaerobes that make use of oxygen to generate energy when oxygen is present. If oxygen isn’t available, they can perform anaerobic respiration.
What is Fungi?
Fungi, the singular fungus are eukaryotes characterized through the existence of chitin inside the cells’ wall.
Common fungi comprise microscopic organisms such as yeasts and molds, and macro organisms like mushrooms. They are heterotrophs, which rely on autotrophs to provide their energy and food sources indirectly. They absorb nutrients by secreting digestive enzymes that are released to the surrounding environment. Fungi are the primary decomposers of the ecosystem that transform complex organic compounds into organic compounds. Fungi could be living on their own or may be found in a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with other living organisms.
Because fungi are eukaryotic animals with distinct nucleus that is enclosed by a membrane. They are distinguished from plants by virtue that chitin is present inside the cell wall as well as their absence of chlorophyll. They also possess multiple cell organelles , including mitochondria, vesicles and 80S Ribosomes. Most fungi are found as an thread-like structure, referred to as Hyphae, which are at times septate and aseptate. Macroscopic fungi can be seen as colonies within culture media that differ in size, shape or texture as well as the color. The majority of fungi’s reproduction occurs through sporulation and budding. Sporulating fungi produce dry spores that are dispersed through wind or other causes.
Sexual reproduction can be achieved in fungi that are produced by reproductive spores. The haploid spores join via cell fusion, resulting in an zygote that is diploid. Fungi can be further classified into six categories on the basis of appearance of the spores; Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, and Zygomycota. Fungi are vital organisms since they are mostly used for the production of antimicrobial substances for the pharmaceutical industry. Additionally, some fungi can be edible and are used to make food.
Examples of Fungi
The yeasts are single-celled eukaryotic species with the majority of them being economically significant or are pathogenic. They are found in the soil, on plant surfaces and in the sugar-rich fruit and flowers. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most well-studied and widely known yeast employed as Baker’s yeast in a variety of baking recipes. Certain yeasts are present as microflora in our bodies, such as Candida albicans found in the vagina. Other pathogenic fungi are Histoplasma and Blastomyces. Infections caused by yeast are among the most frequent infections among women. They reproduce through budding. the daughter cells’ chains grow and break apart later. Certain yeasts reproduce by fission. Torula is wild yeast that reproduces through sexual spores.
Mushrooms are spore-bearing fruitsing body of fungi , which is usually located in soil or in the food sources. The term”mushroom” is used to describe fungi that have cap, stem and gills. Agaricus bisporus has been identified as the most common mushroom. The gills of these fungi create spores which help spread the fungi to reproduce. The edible mushrooms have nutritional value and are therefore eaten for their source of Vitamin D. Certain mushrooms can be toxic since they create toxins through secondary metabolites. Certain mushrooms are being investigated as potential treatments for illnesses and they are being extracted of polysaccharides glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have medicinal properties.
Differences Between Bacteria and Fungi – Bacteria vs Fungi
|Basis for Comparison||Bacteria||Fungi|
|Definition||Bacteria are microscopic, single-celled organisms that are distinguished in the absence of an incipient nucleus, and a small number of organelles of cells that are membrane-free.||Fungi, the singular fungus are eukaryotes distinguished in the absence of chitin within cells’ walls.|
|Cell Type||All bacteria are prokaryotes.||All fungal species are eukaryotes.|
|No. of cells||Bacteria are unicellular bacteria with a smaller cellular structures.||Most fungi are multicellular , with complex cell structures. Some fungi such as yeast could be monocellular.|
|Size||The size of bacteria varies between 0.5 to 5 millimeters.||Its size fungus can vary from 2 to 10 um.|
|The cell wall||Bacteria’s cell walls are composed of peptidoglycan. It is under this that cells have a membrane.||Fungi’s cell walls are comprised of Chitin.|
|Morphology||Bacteria possess three distinct shapes, namely round (cocci) and spiral (Spirilla) or rod (bacillus).||Fungi have different shapes, however the majority of them appear as an elongated thread known as Hyphae.|
|pH||Bacteria thrive in a neutral pH range of 6.5-7.||Fungi generally prefer a moderately acidic environment , with a pH of between 4-6.|
|Mobility||Some bacteria have motile flagella.||Fungi are inanimate organisms.|
|Nucleus||The genetic material of bacteria is found in the nuclear region of the cytoplasm.||The genetic material found in fungal cells is found within this region of the nuclear.|
|Cell organelles||Bacteria contain a few organelles without membranes.||Fungi are composed of several organelles that are membrane bound.|
|Ribosomes||Bacteria as well as any other prokaryotes contain 70S Ribosomes. 70S ribosomes are comprised of the subunits 50S and 30S.||As with all eukaryotes, have 80S Ribosomes. The 80S ribosome consists of two subunits, 60S and 40S.|
|Reproduction||Bacteria reproduce through an asexual technique similar to binary fission.||Fungal reproduction is achieved through both sexual or sexual techniques. Sexual reproduction occurs via fungal spores.|
|Nutrition||Bacteria may be autotrophs or heterotrophs.||The majority of fungi are heterotrophs, which feed on decaying and dead matter.|
|Energy source||Bacteria get their energy from organic matter or organic matter such as sugar or protein or fat.||Fungi get their energy from organic matter.|
|Respiration||Bacteria can perform anaerobic and aerobic respiration.||The majority of yeast-like fungi do anaerobic respiration or ethanol fermentation.|
|Pili||Some bacteria could contain pili.||Pili isn’t a part of the fungi.|
|Cytoskeleton||Bacteria don’t have microfilaments or cytoskeletons as microtubules do.||Fungi contain microtubules as well as microfilaments.|
|Cell cycle||Bacteria have cell cycles that are shorter between 20 and 60 minutes.||Fungi have longer cycles of cell cycle that range between 12 and 24 hours.|
|Diseases||Tuberculosis, tetanus and leprosy as well as typhoid and as well as cholera, are caused by bacteria.||Skin infection, Aspergillosis, Aspergilloma, Histoplasmosis, and others are caused by fungi.|
|Use||The beneficial uses of bacteria are the production of antibiotics and other chemical compounds.||Benefits of fungi can be found in beer production bread, beer, and antibiotics.|
|Examples||E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhi, Lactobacillus spp., etc.||Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Histoplasma, Aspergillus niger, Agaricus boirus, etc.|