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Both kinds of fission are the two types of Asexual reproduction, where the binary fission gives rise to two daughter cells that are derived from the parental cell while in multiple fission the parent cell is the one that gives birth to a number of daughter cells. Binary fission is one the most commonly used methods of reproduction among prokaryotes. Multiple Fission occurs in parasite species and protists.
In general, in biology one of the fundamental concepts is reproduction. It explains how living organisms create the species they are and the ways in which they differ from other organisms too. We come to recognize the similarities between the species and how species will continue to demonstrate their existence despite changing conditions of the natural environment.
In unicellular organisms, when the cell reproduces, it creates a new person, however when multicellular cells are involved, reproduction of cells is a sign of the growth and renewal of the cell. In multicellular organisms, the birth of an offspring is a complicated process that requires the participation of numerous hormones.
We are all conscious of the fact that reproduction can be of two types : asexual and sexual. Sexual reproduction is which involves the participation of two-parent cells (fusion of gametes) which reproduces and gives birth to the baby. Asexual reproduction, on the other hand, is a single cell, which divides its nucleus and then gives birth to offspring.
Asexual reproduction can be observed in unicellular organisms, such as archaea, bacteria and even at the multicellular levels in fungi, plants and a few animals of lower. There are many kinds of asexual reproduction that have been identified to date and include fission budding, fragmentation, vegetative propagation, spore formation and parthenogenesis.
In this case we will look at the two terms associated with sexual reproduction and the ways in which they differ from the other. They are binary fission and multi fission. Also, we will be discussing the reproduction process.
Differences between Binary fission vs multiple fission
What is Binary Fission?
The process of asexual reproduction where the parent body is separated or divided into two bodies or a cells, is referred to in binary fission. It is the most common method for reproduction in prokaryotes.
As a result of the binary process the parent cell has prepared itself by making a duplicate of its genetic material (Deoxyribonucleic acid, also known as DNA) before being divided. The nucleus that has the genetic material copies itself, moving the two nuclei towards opposite poles.
Gradually, the cytoplasm is separated by the division of the two nuclei , this creates two daughter cells. This way the daughter cell gets one copy of the genetic material from their parent cell.
Binary fission is a steady process, and the genomes of unicellular organisms don’t undergo any changes. There are four kinds of binary fission that are observed in unicellular organisms. They are : Transverse, Longitudinal irregular, oblique and transverse.
The process whereby the division of the cytoplasm (cytokinesis) occurs on the transverses axis, it’s called transverse binary fission. This kind of cytokinesis is typically found inside the Paramecium (ciliated protozoans). The longitudinal binary fission the cytokinesis is held on the longitudinal direction of the cell. It is typically observed in Euglena.
If the cytokinesis takes place in any plane or axis which is never perpendicular to the plane that nucleus division the cell, this is known as an irregular binary fission and it is typically observed in amoeba. If the cytokinesis is a follow-up to the circular pattern of division it is referred to as the oblique binary Fission and it is observed on Ceratium (dinoflagellates).
Binary fission takes place under favorable conditions. The cell divides under favorable conditions which include temperature, the surrounding environment as well as the supply of nutrition.
Certain organisms that divide by binary fission are Euglena, Amoeba, Paramecium, Ceratium, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and so on.
What is Multiple Fission?
Another kind of asexual reproduction is multiple fission, where an organism (parent cell) creates a variety of daughter cells instead.
The slime moulds (Myxomycetes) and protozoans are the most common species to divide through this method. Similar to mitotic division, which is the cells nucleus undergoes a number of divisions, and produces the number of nuclei.
At the same time, after splitting of nuclei the cytoplasm begins to separate and covers each nucleus within its membrane , leading to the creation of the new cell.
The nucleus splits multiple times in order to create many nuclei. This is how organisms are able to reproduce under favorable and unfavourable conditions.
Key Differences Between Binary and Multiple Fission
Below are the most important elements to comprehend the distinction between multiple and binary fission:
- If the parent cell splits only twice in equal parts, and then gives birth to two daughter cells is called binary fission. However, in the case of Multiple Fission, where parent cells divide in a series of cycles and creates a multitude of daughter cells, this is known as multiple fission.
- Pattern of division that occurs in binary fission, the nucleus as well as cytoplasm are divided simultaneously with a distinct structure of division. There is however no cyst created as a result of division. Contrarily, in repeated fission, the nucleus splits and becomes enclosed by cytoplasm. However, there is no specific pattern of division even though a the cyst, or protective cover, is created as a protective covering during division.
- Binary fission can occur in favorable conditions, while multiple fission can occur in favorable and unfavourable conditions.
- Immortality is found in binary fission however, it is not present in multiple fission.
- Binary fission produces two daughter cells, so two nuclei form out of the cell that is parent while multiple fission leads to multiple daughter cells, which means that multiple nuclei are created from the parent cell.
- Binary fission is common in organisms such as Euglena Amoeba Protozoans, Bacteria, flatworms and so on. While multiple fission is seen in the organisms such as Algae, Plasmodium, Sporozoans, etc.
Similarities Between Binary Fission and Multiple Fission
- Bacteria undergo binary fission as well as multiple fission.
- Both Binary and multiple fission create new components that can be regenerated into a brand new
- Multiple fission, also known as binary fission, originates from one entity.
- Both are sexual methods of reproduction.