DNA as well as RNA serve as chemical transporters of genetic information found in all living organisms. In all species DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) stores genetic information and then transmits it to the offspring. The RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is involved in transmitting the genetic code needed for protein synthesis. Certain viruses also use DNA as their material for genetics. DNA is usually found in the nucleus while RNA is located in the cell’s cytoplasm. The main distinction between DNA and RNA is that DNA is composed of deoxyribose within its pentose pentose ring. DNA is composed of ribose within it’s pentose pentose ring.
What is DNA?
Deoxyribonucleic acid, also known as DNA, is the genetic material that makes up many organisms. The majority of DNA is found in the nucleus or nucleoid. There are some that remain in the chloroplast and mitochondria as well. DNA is the source of genetic instructions to regulate the growth of function, reproduction, and development of living organisms.
The backbone of DNA made of sugar-phosphate is created by nitrogenous bases as well as phosphate groups that are attached to the sugar deoxyribose. C-H bonds found in deoxyribose sugar are not as reactive. Thus, DNA is remarkably stable under alkaline conditions. Four distinct nitrogenous bases can be recognized in DNA including Cytosine (C) as well as Guanine (G) and adenine (A) and Thymine (T). The two strands of polynucleotide are joined through hydrogen bonds, which form between the complement bases. Adenine (A) has a relationship with the amino acid thymine (T) while Cytosine (C) is paired with the guanine (G). Therefore, both strands are mutually exclusive. The two strands of polynucleotide are then twisted to create an inverse helix. The strands in the double helix runs across opposite sides, creating two strands that are antiparallel. The opposite ends of the strand are known in the form 5′, and 3 ends as 3. The major groove (22 A wide) and minor groove (12 A wide) can be seen inside the double-helix.
The B-form is the most frequent configuration of DNA in all living organisms. The way in which is the order in which four base pairs are placed across the backbone encodes biological information inside DNA stretches known as genes. DNA synthesizes a duplicate of the DNA, which is used for reproduction. DNA is easily damaged by UV light.
What is RNA?
Ribonucleic acid , also known as RNA, is found mostly in the cells of the cytoplasm. There are also a few within the nucleus. A lot of viruses keep their genetic information in the RNA genome. It plays a crucial role to regulate and express genes.
It is a polynucleotide made of monomers made up of nucleotides, similar to DNA. It has a shorter strand of DNA. Ribose is the sugar that creates the backbone of sugar-phosphate. Ribose has a high degree of reactivity because of the hydroxyl groups in the 2′ region on the pentose rings. Thus, RNA is not stable in alkaline environments. Because of the presence of the 2’OH group, RNA is found in the A-form. A-form geometry creates the deep, narrow main groove, and a narrow and wide minor groove. Four nitrogenous base that are found in the RNA include cytosine (C) and the guanine (G) as well as Adenine (A) and the uracil (U). Like DNA, RNA functions only as a single-stranded molecular the majority of the time, however it is also able to form double-stranded structures, such as hairpin loops through complementary base pairing. For example, Adenine (A) has a relationship with the uracil (U) while the cytosine (C) has a relationship with the guanine (G).
The majority of the functions of RNA display the tertiary structure. The most bioactive RNA types include messenger transcripts (mRNA) as well as transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) as well as tiny nuclear RNA (snRNA) as well as other not-codingRNA (ncRNA). The mRNA, tRNA and rRNA are all related to the process of protein production. The ncRNA plays a role in the process of processing RNA as well as gene regulation. Certain RNAs like ribozymes can catalyze chemical reactions. The small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) play an essential role in the regulation of genes by interference with RNA. Transcription is the procedure by which the synthesis of RNA takes place with DNA as the basis. The enzyme RNA polymerase that initiates the process. The RNA polymerase is not easily damaged by ultraviolet light.