Cell-mediated immunity and immunological immunity are two kinds of adaptive immune responses which allow the human body to protect itself in a targeted manner against harmful substances such as viruses, bacteria and contaminants. While there is some overlap between the two parts of the immune response and both are based on the function of lymphoid cell function – there are some significant distinctions.
It is possible to develop humoral immune response to a particular infection or illness if it is administered using antibodies of someone who has previously subjected to that disease to avert the immune system’s immune response. But, antibody-mediated immunity is molecular components and processes that are distinct from the cell-mediated immune system. This article will will define the terms humoral immunity and cell-mediated immune by examining the different types of immune systems, their functions and the most important types of cells.
Humoral immunity is an immune-mediated reaction that is activated when foreign substances such as antigens are identified within the body. The foreign material is typically extracellular invaders like bacteria. This process is dependent on B cell lymphocytes, which are a kind immunocell that generates antibodies following the discovery of a particular antigen.
They are lymphocytes that move throughout the body’s lymphatic system. They produce a range of antigen-specific proteins that are crucial to detect infections within our body. When B cells from the naive state encounter an antigen within the lymphatic system they undergo a differentiate process that triggers the formation memories B cells as well as B cells that act as effectors.
As they differentiate memory B cells as well as effector B cells create the same antigen-specific molecules that were produced by their naive parent B cells. Through the aid of T lymphocytes that are in turn stimulated through MHC class II receptors, which recognize microbial-associated antigens, activated memory B cells release the antigen-specific molecules they are expressing on their surface . In turn, the B cells that are the effectors release these proteins in blood to attach to the antigen that is of the interest.
Cell mediated Immunity
In contrast to humoral immunity, the cell-mediated immune system does not rely on antibodies for its immune functions. Cell-mediated immunity is mostly controlled by mature T cells, macrophages in addition to the release of the cytokines as a reaction against an antigen.
T cells that are involved in the process of cell-mediated immunity depend on antigen-presenting cells with cell membranes bound MHC Class I antibodies that recognize antigens in the intracellular environment that are target to. The specificity of binding among MHC protein and antigens from foreign origin is crucial to the maturation and differentiation process of T cells in the beginning into helper or killer cells.
Cell-mediated immunity usually comes in the body at sites that are infected with bacteria, viruses or even fungi (intracellular invading organisms). Through the aid by MHC class I proteins, the T cells are able to detect cancerous cells.
Differences between Humoral Immunity and Cell mediated Immunity
|Characteristics||Humoral Immunity||Cell-mediated Immunity|
|Definition||The macromolecules that confer immunity present in extracellular fluids in the body is referred to as humoral immunity. (“humor” is a term from the Middle Ages used to describe body fluids)||The immunity that detects and eliminates infected cells within the body is referred to as cell-mediated immunity.|
|Mediator||The most important cells involved in humoral immunity are B-cells..||The primary cell that is involved in immune cell cell-mediated are T-cells.|
|Components||T cells, B cells and macrophages.||Helper T-cells, cytotoxic T cells, naturally-occurring killer cells as well as macrophages.|
|Pathogen||The humoral immune system protects against extracellular pathogens as well as their toxins.||The immune system of cells protects from intracellular pathogens.|
|Pathogen recognition||Find pathogens or antigens which are present in blood or lymph.||It reacts to any cell with an abnormal MHC markers, which includes cells infected by pathogens, tumor cells, or transplanted cells.|
|Antigen detectors||Phagocytes as well as antibodies themselves are utilized to detect antigens.||Receptors , as well as MHC molecules found on cells’ surfaces are used to identify antigens.|
|Antigen Binding||B-cells make antibodies, and the antibodies attach to antigens.||T-cell receptors on cells attach to T-cells that then attach to antigens.|
|Antigen Processing||Do not need to process antigens.||Antigens have to be processed and displayed for T-lymphocyte-mediated response.|
|Receptor Involved||It is a result of B-cell receptors (BCRs).||It is a result of cells called T-cells (TCRs).|
|Surface receptors and molecules that are accessible||Iga, Igb, Fc receptors, CD40, CD21||CD3 molecular complexDimer of chain Dimer of chain, CD4, CD8 and CD2 CD28. Integrins|
|The T-cell type in question||It is only the T-helper cell (CD4+) is the only cell involved.||The two CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cells are involved.|
|Antibodies formation||Antibodies are created in an immune response.||Antibodies don’t form as part of an immune system that is mediated by cells.|
|Onset||The onset can be quick.||The onset can be delayed.|
|Result||The final result of activation is the differentiation of B-cells from plasma, producing antibodies.||The final result of activation is the release the cytokines.|
|Protection from||Extracellular bacterial pathogens or viruses.||It shields against fungus bacteria, and viruses that can cause intracellular pathogens.|
|Immunological surveillance||It doesn’t provide any the ability to monitor your immune system.||It is a means of ensuring that you are immune.|
|Hypersensitivity reactions||The hypersensitivity of type I, II and III is mediated through humoral immunity.||Type IV hypersensitivity is caused by immune cells.|
|Part in Organ transplantation and Grafting||It could be involved in the early rejection of grafts because of preformed antibodies.||It plays a role when organs are rejected transplants.|
|Immunity to cancer||It doesn’t provide protection against cancer.||Since it kills tumor or cancerous cell, it offers the protection needed against cancer.|
|Method of assessment||In plasma, the antibodies have a level.||Tests on the skin for the development of delayed type of hypersensitivity|