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Different Types of Microscopes with Definitions, Principle, Uses, Labeled Diagrams

A microscope is a scientific instrument that is used to magnify the image of an object or sample in order to study its structure or ...

A microscope is a scientific instrument that is used to magnify the image of an object or sample in order to study its structure or features in detail. Microscopes are commonly used in scientific and medical research, as well as in education and other applications, to study small structures and organisms that are not visible to the naked eye.

There are several different types of microscopes, including simple microscopes, compound microscopes, and electron microscopes. Simple microscopes, also known as monocular microscopes, have only one lens and are typically used for low-magnification applications. Compound microscopes have multiple lenses and are capable of higher magnifications and better resolution, and they are commonly used in scientific and medical research. Electron microscopes use a beam of electrons instead of visible light to magnify the image of an object, and they are capable of achieving extremely high magnifications and resolutions.

Microscopes are essential tools for scientific research and have made many important contributions to our understanding of the natural world. They have helped to reveal the existence of microorganisms, enabled the study of cells and tissues, and opened up new areas of research that have led to many of the scientific and medical advances we enjoy today.

What are Microscopes
What are Microscopes?

History of Microscope

The history of the microscope can be traced back to the late 16th century, when the first simple microscopes were developed. These early microscopes were simple refracting telescopes that used a converging lens to magnify the image of an object.

The first compound microscopes, which have multiple lenses and are capable of higher magnifications and better resolution, were developed in the early 17th century. The Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is credited with building the first compound microscopes, which he used to study living cells in detail. His observations revolutionized our understanding of biology and laid the foundation for modern microscopy.

In the 19th century, advances in microscopy led to the development of new types of microscopes, including the polarizing microscope, the phase-contrast microscope, and the fluorescence microscope. These microscopes made it possible to study the properties of light and to examine samples in greater detail than was possible with earlier microscopes.

In the 20th century, the development of the electron microscope, which uses a beam of electrons instead of visible light to magnify the image of an object, enabled scientists to study even smaller structures and organisms with unprecedented resolution. Today, microscopes are essential tools for scientific research and have made many important contributions to our understanding of the natural world.

Different Types of Microscopes

A microscope is an optical instrument used in the laboratory for examining the small objects which we can’t see in the naked eye. There are present different types of microscope, which we are using for different purposes. Microscopes are classified based on their working principle, application.

Types of Microscopes
Types of Microscopes

There are mainly present two types of microscope, such as;

  1. Simple Microscope 
  2. Compound Microscope

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classification of microscope
Types of Microscopes
Different Types of Microscopes
Different Types of Microscopes

1. Simple Microscope

  • Simple Microscope refers to those microscopes consisting of a single lens to enlarge an object through angular magnification alone, giving the viewer an erect enlarged virtual image.
  • These types of microscopes use different types of lense for magnification such as; magnifying glass, loupes, and eyepieces.
  • A Simple Microscope is a type of optical Microscope or light Microscope.
  • This was the first microscope ever created.
  • It was invented by Antony van Leeuwenhoek in the 17th century. He combined a convex lens and a holder for specimens.

Working Principle of simple Microscope

All simple microscopes work on a principle, if you place a tiny object or specimen in front of a simple microscope’s lens within its focus, a virtual, erect and magnified image of the object is formed at the least distance of distinct vision from the eye held close to the lens.

A simple microscope is one that employs a single lens for magnification of the sample. A straightforward microscope consists of a convex lens with a short focal length. Magnification power of a basic microscope is expressed as

m = 1 + D/F

Where,

  • D is the least distinct vision
  • F is the focal length of the convex lens
Parts of Simple Microscope
Parts of Simple Microscope

Functions of Simple Microscope

Simple microscopes are scientific instruments that are used to magnify the image of an object or sample in order to study its structure or features in detail. Here are some functions of simple microscopes:

  1. Viewing small objects: Simple microscopes are used to view small objects or samples that are not visible to the naked eye. This can include small insects, plant structures, or other small samples.
  2. Examining the structure of samples: Simple microscopes can be used to examine the structure of samples in detail, such as the structure of leaves and flowers or the surface of minerals.
  3. Educational and hobbyist applications: Simple microscopes are often used in educational settings or for hobbyist applications, such as studying small insects or examining the structure of leaves and flowers.
  4. Low-magnification applications: Simple microscopes are typically used for low-magnification applications, and they are not suitable for studying small structures or organisms in great detail. However, they can be useful for certain educational or hobbyist applications.
  5. Easy to use: Simple microscopes are typically easy to use, which makes them a good choice for beginners or for applications where ease of use is a priority.

Advantages and disadvantages of Simple Microscope

Advantages

  1. Low cost: Simple microscopes are relatively inexpensive compared to more advanced models.
  2. Easy to use: Simple microscopes are designed to be easy to use, even for people who are new to microscopy.
  3. Portable: Simple microscopes are small and lightweight, making them easy to take with you wherever you go.
  4. Great for educational purposes: Simple microscopes are often used in schools and other educational settings to introduce students to the principles of microscopy.

Disadvantages

  1. Limited magnification: Simple microscopes typically have a lower magnification range compared to more advanced models, so they may not be suitable for observing very small or detailed specimens.
  2. Limited resolution: Simple microscopes often have a lower resolution compared to more advanced models, so they may not be able to distinguish between closely spaced objects or structures.
  3. Limited lighting options: Simple microscopes often have a single light source, which may not be sufficient for observing some specimens.
  4. Limited adjustments: Simple microscopes often have limited adjustments, such as the ability to focus or adjust the eyepieces, which may make it more difficult to obtain a clear image.

2. Compound Microscope

  • A compound microscope (often called a “biological microscope,” though this can technically encompass stereo microscopes as well) consists of a single eyepiece and numerous “objectives” on a revolving ring, allowing the magnification power to be varied by switching from one objective to another.
  • They are widely employed in medical research and other sectors where a high level of optical magnification is required, as well as in many schools, especially at the higher levels.
  • To be viewed, samples must first be prepared on a slide, frequently with a cover slip to flatten and secure the sample. Frequently, students have access to prepared slides with samples permanently embedded between the layers.
  • Blood and other human and animal cells (including cheek cells), parasites, germs, algae, and thin sections of other tissues and organs are commonly observed as samples. These are completely invisible to the naked eye, making them perfect candidates for examination with a compound microscope.
  • Compound microscope magnification ranges often extend from 40x to 100x, 400x, and occasionally up to 1000x. Despite claims of higher magnification, resolution degrades significantly beyond this point.

Working Principle of Compound Microscope

The compound microscopes are works on the principle that when a tiny specimen to be magnified is placed just beyond the focus of its objective lens, a virtual, inverted and highly magnified image of the object are formed at the least distance of distinct vision from the eye held close to the eyepiece.

A compound microscope is a type of microscope that contains many lenses. It consists of a combination of lenses and two optical components called an objective lens and an eyepiece or ocular lens. Magnification of the compound microscope is expressed as:

m – D/f0 X D/Fe

Where,

  • D is the least distance of distinct vision
  • L is the length of the microscope tube
  • fo is the focal length of the objective lens
  • fe is the focal length of the eyepiece

Compound Microscope Diagram

Parts of Compound Microscope
Compound Microscope

Advantages and Disadvantages of Compound Microscope

There are several advantages and disadvantages of using a compound microscope:

Advantages:

  1. High magnification: Compound microscopes are capable of high magnification, making them suitable for observing very small or detailed specimens.
  2. Widely available: Compound microscopes are widely available and are often used in educational settings and laboratories.
  3. Easy to use: Compound microscopes are relatively simple and easy to use, even for people who are new to microscopy.
  4. Good for a variety of samples: Compound microscopes can be used to study a wide range of samples, including cells, tissues, bacteria, and small structures within materials.

Disadvantages:

  1. Limited resolution: Compound microscopes often have a lower resolution compared to more advanced models, so they may not be able to distinguish between closely spaced objects or structures.
  2. Limited lighting options: Compound microscopes often have a single light source, which may not be sufficient for observing some specimens.
  3. Limited adjustments: Compound microscopes often have limited adjustments, such as the ability to focus or adjust the eyepieces, which may make it more difficult to obtain a clear image.
  4. Inaccurate measurements: Compound microscopes often have an inaccurate scale, which can make it difficult to accurately measure the size of objects or structures within the sample.

Classification of Compound Microscope

Compound Microscope is classified in two categories;

1. Light  Microscope

Light Microscope is further classified into four categories such as;

  1. Bright-field Microscope
  2. Dark-Field Microscope.
  3. Phase-contrast Microscope.
  4. Fluorescent Microscope.

2. Electron Microscope

Electron Microscope is further classified into three categories such as;

  1. Scanning Microscope
  2. Transmission Microscope
  3. Confocal Microscope

1. Light Microscope

  • Light Microscopes use visible light and magnifying lenses to examine small objects not visible to the naked eye, or in finer detail than the naked eye allows. Magnification, however, is not the most important issue in microscopy.

They are classified  in these following groups;

a. Bright-field Microscope

  • In a bright-field microscope, the specimen appears as dark against the bright background.
  • A bright-field microscope is a type of light microscope that uses visible light to illuminate a sample and a system of lenses to magnify the image. In a bright-field microscope, the light source is located below the stage, and the sample is illuminated from below.
  • The light passes through the transparent or semi-transparent sample and is focused by the objective lens onto the eyepiece. This produces a bright image against a dark background, which makes it easy to see the details of the sample.
Bright-field Microscope
Bright-field Microscope
  • Bright-field microscopes are the most common type of light microscope and are widely used in a variety of fields, including biology, medicine, and materials science. They are often used to study cells, tissues, and small structures within materials.
  • One of the advantages of bright-field microscopy is that it is relatively simple and easy to use. It is also relatively inexpensive compared to other types of microscopes.
  • However, bright-field microscopy has some limitations, including poor contrast for transparent or colorless samples, and the inability to distinguish between closely spaced objects or structures. To overcome these limitations, other types of microscopy, such as phase contrast microscopy or fluorescence microscopy, may be used.

Applications of Bright-field Microscope

  • They are used in the laboratory for studying the outer structure of microorganisms.
Bright Field Microscope
Bright Field Microscope

Advantages and Disadvantages of Bright-field Microscope

Advantages:

  1. Widely available: Bright-field microscopes are widely available and are often used in educational settings and laboratories.
  2. Easy to use: Bright-field microscopes are relatively simple and easy to use, even for people who are new to microscopy.
  3. Inexpensive: Bright-field microscopes are generally less expensive compared to other types of microscopes.
  4. Good for opaque or semi-transparent samples: Bright-field microscopy is well-suited for studying opaque or semi-transparent samples, such as cells, tissues, and small structures within materials.

Disadvantages:

  1. Poor contrast for transparent or colorless samples: Bright-field microscopy may not provide sufficient contrast for transparent or colorless samples, such as bacteria or algae.
  2. Limited detail: Bright-field microscopy may not be able to distinguish between closely spaced objects or structures, which limits its ability to observe fine details.
  3. Limited lighting options: Bright-field microscopes often have a single light source, which may not be sufficient for observing some samples.
  4. Limited adjustments: Bright-field microscopes often have limited adjustments, such as the ability to focus or adjust the eyepieces, which may make it more difficult to obtain a clear image.

b. Dark-Field Microscope

  • In the dark-field microscope, the specimen appears as bright against a dark background.
  • A dark-field microscope is a type of light microscope that uses a special condenser lens to produce an image of a sample in which the background is dark and the sample appears bright. In a dark-field microscope, the light source is located below the stage and the sample is illuminated from the side.
  • The light is directed onto the sample at a shallow angle, and the light that is scattered by the sample is focused by the objective lens onto the eyepiece. This produces an image in which the background is dark and the sample appears bright.
Dark-Field Microscope
Dark-Field Microscope
  • Dark-field microscopy is often used to study small, transparent or semi-transparent samples, such as bacteria, algae, and small crystals. It is particularly useful for observing fine details and structures that are not visible in bright-field microscopy, such as the flagella of bacteria or the spines of algae.
  • Dark-field microscopy has several advantages, including high contrast and the ability to observe fine details and structures that are not visible in bright-field microscopy.
  • However, it also has some limitations, including a narrow field of view and the inability to produce a true-color image of the sample. In addition, dark-field microscopy requires a highly skilled operator to properly align the microscope and adjust the light source.

Applications:

  • This microscope is used to distinguish unstained, thin living cells that are not visible under a simple microscope.
Dark Field Microscope

Advantages and Disadvantages of Dark-Field Microscope

Advantages:

  1. High contrast: Dark-field microscopy produces an image with high contrast, which makes it easy to see fine details and structures that are not visible in bright-field microscopy.
  2. Suitable for transparent or semi-transparent samples: Dark-field microscopy is particularly well-suited for studying transparent or semi-transparent samples, such as bacteria, algae, and small crystals.
  3. Can observe fine details and structures: Dark-field microscopy is effective at observing fine details and structures that are not visible in bright-field microscopy, such as the flagella of bacteria or the spines of algae.

Disadvantages:

  1. Limited field of view: Dark-field microscopy has a narrow field of view compared to bright-field microscopy.
  2. Cannot produce a true-color image: Dark-field microscopy cannot produce a true-color image of the sample.
  3. Requires skilled operator: Dark-field microscopy requires a highly skilled operator to properly align the microscope and adjust the light source.
  4. Limited lighting options: Dark-field microscopes often have a single light source, which may not be sufficient for observing some samples.
  5. Limited adjustments: Dark-field microscopes often have limited adjustments, such as the ability to focus or adjust the eyepieces, which may make it more difficult to obtain a clear image.
Difference between dark field and bright field Microscope
Difference between dark field and bright field Microscope

c. Phase-contrast Microscope

Some unpigmented living cells are not visible in the light microscope because it can’t create differences in contrast between cells and water. Only Phase-contrast Microscope can create contrast difference between cell and water that is why these cells only visible in Phase-contrast Microscope

Phase-contrast Microscope
Phase-contrast Microscope
  • A phase-contrast microscope is a type of light microscope that uses a special type of lens to improve the contrast of transparent or semi-transparent samples. In a phase-contrast microscope, the light source is located below the stage and the sample is illuminated from below.
  • The light passes through the sample and is focused by the objective lens onto a special phase plate, which is placed in the path of the light. The phase plate modifies the phase of the light waves as they pass through it, which changes the intensity of the light at different points in the image. This produces an image in which the different structures within the sample are highlighted and more easily visible.
  • Phase-contrast microscopy is particularly useful for studying transparent or semi-transparent samples, such as cells, bacteria, and small structures within materials. It is often used in biology, medicine, and materials science to study the structure and function of cells and other small structures.
  • Phase-contrast microscopy has several advantages, including the ability to observe fine details and structures that are not visible in bright-field microscopy, and the ability to produce a true-color image of the sample. However, it also has some limitations, including the need for special phase plates and the requirement for a skilled operator to properly align the microscope and adjust the light source.
Phase Contrast Microscopy
Phase Contrast Microscopy

Application of Phase-contrast Microscope

  • To examine living cells without staining them. It is possible to study the different biological processes occurring in living cells.
  • To explore the mobility of microbes.
  • Observe endospores and inclusion bodies containing poly-hydroxybutyrate, polymetaphosphate, sulphur, or other compounds.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Phase-contrast Microscope

There are several advantages and disadvantages of using a phase-contrast microscope:

Advantages:

  1. Improved contrast for transparent or semi-transparent samples: Phase-contrast microscopy improves the contrast of transparent or semi-transparent samples, such as cells, bacteria, and small structures within materials, making them easier to observe.
  2. Can observe fine details and structures: Phase-contrast microscopy is effective at observing fine details and structures that are not visible in bright-field microscopy.
  3. Can produce a true-color image: Phase-contrast microscopy can produce a true-color image of the sample.
  4. Widely used: Phase-contrast microscopy is widely used in biology, medicine, and materials science to study the structure and function of cells and other small structures.

Disadvantages:

  1. Requires special phase plates: Phase-contrast microscopy requires the use of special phase plates, which may be expensive and may need to be replaced periodically.
  2. Requires skilled operator: Phase-contrast microscopy requires a skilled operator to properly align the microscope and adjust the light source.
  3. Limited lighting options: Phase-contrast microscopes often have a single light source, which may not be sufficient for observing some samples.
  4. Limited adjustments: Phase-contrast microscopes often have limited adjustments, such as the ability to focus or adjust the eyepieces, which may make it more difficult to obtain a clear image.

d. Fluorescent Microscope

  • A fluorescent microscope is a type of light microscope that uses fluorescent dyes and a special light source to produce an image of a sample. In a fluorescent microscope, the sample is first treated with a fluorescent dye that is specific for a particular type of molecule or structure within the sample.
  • When the sample is illuminated with light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescent dye absorbs the light and emits it at a longer wavelength, which produces a bright image of the sample.
  • Fluorescent microscopy is particularly useful for studying cells, tissues, and other small structures within materials. It is often used in biology, medicine, and materials science to study the structure and function of cells and to identify specific molecules or structures within the sample.
  • Fluorescent microscopy has several advantages, including the ability to observe fine details and structures that are not visible in bright-field microscopy, and the ability to produce a true-color image of the sample.
  • However, it also has some limitations, including the need for specialized equipment and the requirement for a skilled operator to properly align the microscope and adjust the light source.
Fluorescent Microscope
Fluorescent Microscope

Fluorescent Microscope Principle

When fluorescent dyes are subjected to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, they fluoresce, or convert these invisible, short-wavelength rays into visible light (visible light).

Application of Fluorescent Microscope

  • To distinguish distinct bacterial pathogens following fluorophore labelling. For instance, the Auramine-Rhodamine staining method for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • To undertake ecological research. Fluorochromes such as acridine orange discolour bacteria. These pigmented organisms will fluoresce orange or green even when surrounded by other particles.
  • To differentiate between living and nonliving bacteria based on the colour of their fluorescence when treated with a specific mixture of stains.
Fluorescent Microscope Image
Fluorescent Microscope Image – Human Lung Tissue
Fluorescent Microscope Image
Fluorescent Microscope Image – Human Small Intestine Tissue

Advantages and Disadvantages of Fluorescent Microscope

There are several advantages and disadvantages of using a fluorescent microscope:

Advantages:

  1. Improved contrast and resolution: Fluorescent microscopy can produce high-contrast images with improved resolution compared to bright-field microscopy, making it easier to observe fine details and structures within the sample.
  2. Can identify specific molecules or structures: Fluorescent microscopy can be used to identify specific molecules or structures within the sample by using fluorescent dyes that are specific for those molecules or structures.
  3. Can produce a true-color image: Fluorescent microscopy can produce a true-color image of the sample.
  4. Widely used: Fluorescent microscopy is widely used in biology, medicine, and materials science to study the structure and function of cells and to identify specific molecules or structures within the sample.

Disadvantages:

  1. Requires specialized equipment: Fluorescent microscopy requires specialized equipment, such as a fluorescence light source and fluorescent dyes, which may be expensive and may need to be replaced periodically.
  2. Requires skilled operator: Fluorescent microscopy requires a skilled operator to properly align the microscope and adjust the light source.
  3. Limited lighting options: Fluorescent microscopes often have a single light source, which may not be sufficient for observing some samples.
  4. Limited adjustments: Fluorescent microscopes often have limited adjustments, such as the ability to focus or adjust the eyepieces, which may make it more difficult to obtain a clear image.

 2. Electron Microscope

An electron microscope is a type of microscope in which a beam of accelerated electrons serves as the source of illumination. It is a specialised microscope that magnifies images in nanometers, allowing for a high image resolution.

No light is required for an electron microscope to create an image. This type of microscope generates a digital image by sending accelerated electrons across or through a specimen. These microscopes offer the highest attainable power and resolution and are used to observe cellular and macromolecular structure in exquisite detail. While this may appear to be the solution to all microscopy issues, electron beams kill materials. This implies they cannot be used to observe living specimens.

Electron Microscope
Electron Microscope

Principle of Electron Microscope

Tungsten is the metal used in an electron microscope. The application of a high voltage current results in the excitation of electrons in the form of a continuous stream that is utilised as a light beam. Magnetic coils serve as the electron microscope’s lenses. These magnetic coils are able to concentrate the electron beam on the sample, so illuminating the material. As the current flow grows, so does the magnetic lens’s strength. The architecture of the electron beam flow prevents it from penetrating the glass lens.

Application of Electron Microscope

  • An electron microscope is utilised for quality control and failure investigation in industrial settings.
  • Using specialised cameras, the images produced by an electron microscope can be captured as electron micrographs.
  • With the invention of the electron microscope, the study of metals and crystals became easier.

Types of Electron Microscope

There are present different types of electron microscope such as;

a. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

Using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the exterior characteristics of an organism are observed. The specimen has a thin coating of a heavy metal, such as gold. The specimen is then scanned back and forth by an electron beam. Electrons scattered from the metal coating are collected and used to form an image on a viewing screen. SEM can achieve magnification ranging from 15X to 100,000X.

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

A scanning electron microscope may generate a three-dimensional image of the surface of a microbe. SEM aids in determining the precise in situ localization of microbes in ecological niches such as human skin and the intestinal lining.

Application: 

  • Used to study the surface area of microorganisms in detail.
Scanning Electron Microscope
Scanning Electron Microscope

b. Transmission Electron  Microscope (TEM)

The transmission electron microscope is used to investigate cells and cell structure at extremely high magnification and resolution (individual protein and nucleic acid molecules can be visualised). A high-quality TEM has a resolution of roughly 0.2 nanometers.

To see a bacterial cell with a transmission electron microscope, a unique thin sectioning approach is required. For appropriate contrast, a bacterial cell is cut into thin (20-60 nm) slices and stained with heavy metal stains (such as osmic acid, permanganate, and uranium).

Transmission Electron  Microscope (TEM)
Transmission Electron  Microscope (TEM)

Application:

  • It used to study the internal structure of a specimen.
Transmission Electron Microscope
Transmission Electron Microscope
Transmission electron microscope images
Transmission Electron  Microscope image

c. Confocal Microscopy

Confocal Microscope also known as confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) or laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM).

This is an optical imaging technique to increase the optical resolution and contrast of a micrograph by means of using a spatial pinhole to block out-of-focus light in image formation.

Confocal Microscopy
Confocal Microscopy

This microscope Capturing multiple two-dimensional images at different depths in a sample enables the reconstruction of three-dimensional structures (a process known as optical sectioning) within an object. 

Application

Confocal Microscopy is used extensively in the scientific and industrial communities and typical applications are in life sciences, semiconductor inspection, and materials science.

Other Types of Microscopes

There are present other types of Microscopes such as;

  1. Polarizing microscopes
  2. Scanning Probe Microscope
  3. Stereo Microscope
  4. Inverted Microscopes

1. Polarizing microscopes

A polarizing microscope is a type of microscope that uses polarizing filters to analyze the properties of minerals, crystals, and other materials. It is often used in fields such as geology, mineralogy, and materials science to study the physical and optical properties of substances.

Polarizing microscopes work by using two polarizing filters, known as the analyzer and the polarizer, to manipulate the polarization of light as it passes through a sample. The polarizer is placed below the light source, and the analyzer is placed above the objective lens. The sample is placed between the two polarizing filters.

Polarizing microscopes
Polarizing microscopes

When light passes through the polarizer, it becomes polarized, meaning that the electric field of the light waves vibrates in a particular direction. When the light passes through the sample, some of the light is absorbed, while some is transmitted. The analyzer then filters out light that is not vibrating in the same direction as the polarizer, allowing only light that is vibrating in a specific direction to pass through. This allows the microscope to analyze the properties of the sample based on the intensity and polarization of the transmitted light.

Polarizing microscopes are useful for a wide range of applications, including studying the crystal structure of minerals, analyzing the birefringence of materials, and identifying substances based on their optical properties.

Polarizing microscopes
This is Vitamin C captured under a polarizing microscope at 200x magnification.

2. Scanning Probe Microscope

A scanning probe microscope (SPM) is a type of microscope that uses a very sharp probe to scan the surface of a sample and create high-resolution images of its topography. SPMs are capable of producing images with a resolution of just a few nanometers, making them useful for studying the properties of small structures and surfaces.

There are several different types of SPMs, including atomic force microscopes (AFMs), scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs), and scanning near-field optical microscopes (SNOMs). These instruments work by using a probe to interact with the sample in various ways, such as by measuring the force between the probe and the sample, by tunneling electrons through the gap between the probe and the sample, or by measuring the near-field optical properties of the sample.

SPMs are widely used in a variety of fields, including materials science, biology, and nanotechnology, to study the surface properties of samples and to analyze the structure and composition of small structures. They are also used to fabricate and manipulate small structures, such as nanowires and nanotubes, and to study the properties of individual atoms and molecules.

Principle of Scanning Probe Microscope

The probe tip of the scanning probe microscope is affixed to the end of a cantilever. The tip is so sharp that it can glide precisely and precisely across the sample’s surface, scanning each and every atom. The tip is positioned close to the surface of the sample, causing the cantilever to deflect under the influence of forces. This distance of deflection is measured by the laser. After scanning, the final image is obtained on a computer.

Types of Scanning Probe Microscope

There are several different types of scanning probe microscopes (SPMs), each of which uses a different method to scan the surface of a sample and measure its properties. Some common types of SPMs include:

  1. Atomic force microscopes (AFMs): AFMs use a sharp, cantilevered probe to measure the forces between the probe and the sample as the probe is scanned across the surface. The probe is typically made of a very hard and stiff material, such as silicon, and is attached to a piezoelectric element that moves the probe in very small increments. AFMs can be used to measure the topography of a sample, as well as its electrical, mechanical, and magnetic properties.
  2. Scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs): STMs use a very sharp probe to measure the tunneling current between the probe and the sample as the probe is scanned across the surface. The probe is typically made of a metallic material, such as tungsten, and is mounted on a piezoelectric element that moves the probe in very small increments. STMs can be used to measure the topography of a sample and to study the electronic properties of surfaces.
  3. Scanning near-field optical microscopes (SNOMs): SNOMs use a probe with a very sharp tip, typically made of a metallic material such as gold, to measure the near-field optical properties of a sample. The probe is typically mounted on a piezoelectric element that moves the probe in very small increments. SNOMs can be used to study the optical properties of samples at the nanoscale, such as the absorption and scattering of light.
  4. Scanning capacitance microscopes (SCMs): SCMs use a probe with a sharp tip to measure the capacitance between the probe and the sample as the probe is scanned across the surface. The probe is typically made of a metallic material and is mounted on a piezoelectric element that moves the probe in very small increments. SCMs can be used to measure the topography of a sample and to study its electrical properties.
  5. Scanning Kelvin probe microscopes (SKPMs): SKPMs use a probe with a sharp tip to measure the electrostatic potential of a sample as the probe is scanned across the surface. The probe is typically made of a metallic material and is mounted on a piezoelectric element that moves the probe in very small increments. SKPMs can be used to measure the topography of a sample and to study its electrical properties.

Application of Scanning Probe Microscope

  • It is used to examine various sample qualities, such as electrical properties.
  • This microscope is used to analyse the magnetic property of the sample.
  • With the use of this microscope, information on the sample can be transferred.

3. Stereo Microscope

A stereo microscope is a type of microscope that displays an object in three dimensions. Additionally referred to as a dissecting microscope. There are distinct objective lenses and eyepieces in a stereo microscope, creating two different optical channels for each eye.

A stereo microscope, also known as a dissecting microscope or a low-power microscope, is a type of microscope that uses two eyepieces to provide a three-dimensional view of a sample. Stereo microscopes are typically used for low-magnification observations, such as examining the surface features of a sample or dissection of small organisms.

Stereo microscopes have a relatively low magnification compared to other types of microscopes, typically ranging from 10x to 50x. They are often used for tasks that require a wide field of view, such as examining the surface of a sample or performing dissection or other manipulations.

Stereo microscopes are commonly used in fields such as biology, materials science, and engineering to examine the surface features of samples and to perform tasks such as dissection, assembly, and inspection. They are also commonly used in education and for hobbyist applications, such as examining insects or other small specimens.

Stereo Microscope Diagram

Stereo Microscope
Stereo Microscope

Principle of Stereo Microscope

A stereoscopic microscope operates using the sample’s reflected light. The microscope’s magnification occurs at low power, making it suited for magnifying opaque objects. Because it utilises light reflected from the sample, it is suited for thick, solid materials. The stereo microscope’s magnification ranges between 20x and 50x.

Applications of Stereo Microscope

  • The stereomicroscope allows for the examination of historical coinage and artefacts.
  • It can be utilised in microsurgery.
  • With the use of a stereomicroscope, observing crystals is now simple.

4. Inverted Microscopes

There are both biological and metallurgical varieties of inverted microscopes. Inverted biological microscopes enable magnifications of 40x, 100x, and occasionally 200x and 400x. These biological inverted microscopes are used to examine petri dish-contained living material. The objective lenses are housed beneath the stage of an inverted microscope, allowing the petri dish to be placed on a flat stage. Inverted microscopes are utilised for in-vitro fertilisation, live cell imaging, developmental biology, cell biology, neuroscience, and microbiology. In research, inverted microscopes are frequently used to evaluate and study tissues and cells, particularly living cells.

Inverted Microscopes
Inverted Microscopes

Metallurgical inverted microscopes are utilised to analyse massive parts for fractures or flaws at high magnification. In terms of magnification, they are comparable to biological inverted microscopes, but the samples are not placed in a petri dish; rather, a smooth side of the sample must be prepared so that it can lay flat on the stage. This polished specimen is occasionally referred to as a puck.

5. Metallurgical Microscopes

Metallurgical Microscopes
Metallurgical Microscopes

Metallurgical microscopes are high-powered microscopes meant to examine samples that do not permit light transmission. Reflected light shines through the objective lenses to provide magnifications of 50x, 100x, 200x, and occasionally 500x. Metallurgical microscopes are used to analyse micron-scale flaws in metals, extremely thin coatings such as paint, and grain size.

Aerospace and vehicle manufacturers, as well as businesses analysing metallic constructions, composites, glass, wood, ceramics, polymers, and liquid crystals, use metallurgical microscopes.

This image of a piece of metal with scratches on it was captured under a metallurgical microscope at 100x magnification.
This image of a piece of metal with scratches on it was captured under a metallurgical microscope at 100x magnification.

6. The Digital Microscope

Moving from the world of optical microscopes into the explosion of new images available through the usage of digital microscopes , we can now observe structures that are smaller than the wavelengths visible to the human eye. These were previously unable to view, as wavelengths that we can see are just too big to smash with the objects in a predictable and viewable frequency. Computers have changed all of this.

The Digital Microscope
The Digital Microscope

The digital microscope was invented in Japan in 1986. Some contemporary types utilise an eyepiece for viewing, though a computer monitor is more popular. Software allows the user to focus on and record images (video and stills) of the sample under inspection. Resulting files can be stored, transmitted, modified and utilised as any other digital image file.

7. The USB Computer Microscope

USB computer microscopes can be used on nearly any item, requires no preparation of the specimen, and is straightforward to operate. It is basically a powerful macro lens (up to 200x) on the end of a USB cord. It has a narrow depth of field, but it can be a lot of fun and educational as a very strong, digital magnifier.

The USB Computer Microscope
The USB Computer Microscope

8. The Pocket Microscope

Another tiny alternative for the magnification aficionado is the pocket microscope . This is also utilised by some scientists for hand-held imaging, especially when in the field. It can acquire magnification ranges of 25x to 100x, and there are several digital variants presently coming into the market.

The Pocket Microscope
The Pocket Microscope

9. The Acoustic Microscope

Acoustic microscopes are a new form of microscope on a foundational level. Rather than trying to provide a visible image of a surface or item, acoustic microscopes seek to discover defects, cracks and/or errors during the production process.

Through the application of powerful ultrasonic, the microscope identifies intra-cavity features very well. The most modern form of it is termed scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) (SAM). Internal structures can be examined without damaging or ruining the structure or the object surrounding it (if of a reasonable size of course) (if of a suitable size of course). Point focusing technology is applied to scan and penetrate the specimen while it is immersed in water, reducing the need to harm it.

10. X-Ray Microscopes

Because X-rays can penetrate matter efficiently, they can be used to see the internal structure of opaque specimens such as rocks, bones, or metals. While missing the power of an electron microscope, they don’t require a vacuum tube or accelerated electrons and therefore can handle any kind of specimen. X-ray microscopes may reach a resolution of roughly 20 nanometers.

11. Near-infrared microscopes

Near-infrared microscopes (NIR microscopes) are a type of microscope that uses near-infrared light to produce images of samples. Near-infrared light has a wavelength that is slightly longer than visible light and is therefore not visible to the human eye. NIR microscopes are often used to study the structure and function of tissues and cells, as well as the distribution and interaction of molecules within these systems.

NIR microscopes work by illuminating the sample with near-infrared light and detecting the light that is scattered or absorbed by the sample. The resulting image can provide information about the distribution and concentration of various molecules within the sample. NIR microscopes are particularly useful for studying biological samples, as many biological molecules absorb near-infrared light and can therefore be visualized using this technique.

NIR microscopes are commonly used in fields such as biology, materials science, and medicine to study the structure and function of tissues and cells, as well as the distribution and interaction of molecules within these systems. They are also used to study the properties of materials and to analyze the chemical composition of samples.

12. Raman microscopes

Raman microscopes are a type of microscope that uses lasers to excite vibrations in the bonds of molecules, which can then be detected and used to identify the molecules present in a sample. Raman microscopes work by shining a laser beam onto the sample and detecting the light that is scattered by the sample. The intensity and wavelength of the scattered light are unique for each type of molecule, and can be used to identify the specific molecules present in the sample.

Raman microscopes are commonly used in fields such as materials science, biology, and chemistry to study the chemical composition of samples and to analyze the properties of materials. They are particularly useful for studying samples that are difficult to analyze using other techniques, such as samples that are too small or too complex to be studied with other types of microscopes.

Raman microscopes are also useful for studying samples that are too weak or too unstable to be studied using other techniques, such as samples that are sensitive to heat or other forms of damage. They are also used to study the structure and function of tissues and cells, and to analyze the distribution and interaction of molecules within these systems.

Differences between Simple Microscope and Compound Microscope

Simple microscopes and compound microscopes are both types of optical microscopes that use lenses and light to magnify and analyze samples. However, there are several key differences between these two types of microscopes:

  1. Magnification: Simple microscopes have a lower magnification compared to compound microscopes. Simple microscopes typically have a magnification range of 2x to 10x, while compound microscopes can have a magnification range of up to 1000x or more.
  2. Objective lenses: Simple microscopes have a single objective lens, while compound microscopes have multiple objective lenses that can be used to achieve different levels of magnification.
  3. Illumination: Simple microscopes typically use natural light or an external light source, such as a lamp, to illuminate the sample. Compound microscopes often have an internal light source, such as a bulb or a LED, that is used to illuminate the sample.
  4. Eyepieces: Simple microscopes have a single eyepiece, while compound microscopes have two eyepieces that are used to provide a three-dimensional view of the sample.
  5. Image quality: Simple microscopes often produce lower quality images compared to compound microscopes due to their lower magnification and less sophisticated optical system. Compound microscopes are capable of producing higher resolution images with greater detail.
  6. Applications: Simple microscopes are often used for basic observations and are suitable for examining larger, more transparent samples. Compound microscopes are more powerful and are commonly used for more advanced studies and for examining smaller, more opaque samples.

Differences between Phase-contrast Microscope and Fluorescent Microscope

Phase-contrast microscopes and fluorescent microscopes are two different types of microscopes that are used to observe and study samples at a very small scale.

Phase-contrast microscopes use a special type of objective lens that is designed to enhance the contrast of samples that are transparent or have low refractive indices. This makes it easier to see and study the details of these types of samples. Phase-contrast microscopes do not require the use of dyes or stains, as the contrast is created through the interaction of light with the sample itself.

Fluorescent microscopes, on the other hand, use special dyes or stains that are applied to the sample and emit light when exposed to a specific wavelength of light. This allows researchers to visualize specific structures or molecules within the sample. Fluorescent microscopes require the use of a special light source, called a fluorescence lamp, to excite the fluorophores in the sample and emit light.

There are a few key differences between phase-contrast microscopes and fluorescent microscopes:

  1. Image contrast: Phase-contrast microscopes enhance the contrast of transparent or low-index samples through the interaction of light with the sample, while fluorescent microscopes use dyes or stains to create contrast.
  2. Sample preparation: Phase-contrast microscopes do not require the use of dyes or stains, while fluorescent microscopes require the application of special dyes or stains to the sample.
  3. Light source: Phase-contrast microscopes use standard light sources, while fluorescent microscopes require a special light source, called a fluorescence lamp, to excite the fluorophores in the sample.
  4. Image resolution: Fluorescent microscopes typically have higher resolution than phase-contrast microscopes, as the use of dyes or stains can help to enhance the contrast and clarity of the sample.

Overall, phase-contrast microscopes and fluorescent microscopes are both useful tools for studying samples at a very small scale, but they are used in different ways and for different purposes.

Differences between Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Confocal Microscopy

Scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscopes (TEM), and confocal microscopes are all types of microscopes that are used to observe and study samples at a very small scale. However, they use different techniques and have different capabilities.

  1. Scanning electron microscopes (SEM): SEMs use a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and create an image of its surface features. They are particularly useful for studying the surface features of samples, such as the topography and composition of materials. SEMs can achieve high resolution and can be used to study samples at a variety of scales, from micrometers to nanometers.
  2. Transmission electron microscopes (TEM): TEMs use a beam of electrons that is transmitted through a sample to create an image of the internal structure of the sample. They are particularly useful for studying the microstructure and internal features of samples, such as the arrangement of atoms and molecules. TEMs can achieve very high resolution and are often used to study samples at the nanoscale.
  3. Confocal microscopes: Confocal microscopes use a laser to scan a sample and create an image by focusing the laser onto a small, specific area of the sample. They are particularly useful for studying samples with a high degree of depth or thickness, as they can create detailed images of the sample’s structure at different depths. Confocal microscopes are often used to study biological samples, such as cells and tissues.

There are a few key differences between these types of microscopes:

  1. Image contrast: SEMs create images based on the interaction of electrons with the sample surface, while TEMs create images based on the interaction of electrons with the internal structure of the sample. Confocal microscopes create images based on the reflection of a laser off the sample.
  2. Sample preparation: SEMs and TEMs typically require samples to be prepared in a specific way, such as by coating them with a thin layer of metal or by embedding them in a resin. Confocal microscopes typically do not require any special sample preparation.
  3. Resolution: TEMs can achieve the highest resolution of the three types of microscopes, followed by SEMs and confocal microscopes.
  4. Scale: SEMs and TEMs can be used to study samples at a variety of scales, from micrometers to nanometers, while confocal microscopes are typically used to study samples at the micrometer scale.

Differences Between Bright-field Microscope and Dark-Field Microscope

Difference Between Darkfield and bright Field Microscope
Difference Between Darkfield and bright Field Microscope

There are several key differences between bright-field microscopy and dark-field microscopy:

  1. Illumination: In bright-field microscopy, the sample is illuminated from below, and the light passes through the transparent or semi-transparent sample and is focused by the objective lens onto the eyepiece. In dark-field microscopy, the light source is located below the stage and the sample is illuminated from the side at a shallow angle. The light that is scattered by the sample is focused by the objective lens onto the eyepiece.
  2. Image contrast: In bright-field microscopy, the sample appears bright against a dark background. In dark-field microscopy, the sample appears bright against a dark background.
  3. Sample types: Bright-field microscopy is best suited for studying opaque or semi-transparent samples, while dark-field microscopy is best suited for studying transparent or semi-transparent samples.
  4. Details and structures: Bright-field microscopy is not as effective at observing fine details and structures as dark-field microscopy.
  5. Color: Bright-field microscopy can produce a true-color image of the sample, while dark-field microscopy cannot.
  6. Field of view: Bright-field microscopy has a wider field of view compared to dark-field microscopy.
  7. Operator skill: Dark-field microscopy requires a highly skilled operator to properly align the microscope and adjust the light source.

Differences between Scanning Probe Microscope and Stereo Microscope

Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) and stereo microscopes are two different types of microscopes that are used to observe and study samples at a small scale. They have different capabilities and are used for different purposes.

  1. Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs): SPMs use a very small probe, often just a few nanometers in size, to scan the surface of a sample and create an image of its surface features. SPMs are particularly useful for studying the surface features of samples at the nanoscale, such as the topography and composition of materials. There are several different types of SPMs, including atomic force microscopes (AFMs), scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs), and scanning near-field optical microscopes (SNOMs).
  2. Stereo microscopes: Stereo microscopes, also known as dissecting microscopes or low-power microscopes, use two objective lenses to create a three-dimensional image of the sample. They are particularly useful for studying samples that have a high degree of depth or thickness, such as biological samples or small mechanical parts. Stereo microscopes are often used for dissection, inspection, and assembly tasks.

There are a few key differences between these types of microscopes:

  1. Image contrast: SPMs create images based on the interaction of the probe with the sample surface, while stereo microscopes create images based on the refraction of light through the sample.
  2. Sample preparation: SPMs typically do not require any special sample preparation, while stereo microscopes may require samples to be mounted on a slide or in a special holder.
  3. Resolution: SPMs can achieve very high resolution, often at the atomic scale, while stereo microscopes typically have lower resolution.
  4. Scale: SPMs are typically used to study samples at the nanoscale, while stereo microscopes are typically used to study samples at the micrometer scale.

Overall, SPMs and stereo microscopes are both useful tools for studying samples at a small scale, but they are used for different purposes and have different capabilities.

Differences between Electron Microscope and Compound Microscope

Electron microscopes and compound microscopes are two different types of microscopes that are used to observe and study samples at a small scale. They have different capabilities and are used for different purposes.

  1. Electron microscopes: Electron microscopes use a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample. There are two main types of electron microscopes: transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). TEMs create an image of the internal structure of the sample by transmitting a beam of electrons through the sample, while SEMs create an image of the surface features of the sample by scanning the surface with a beam of electrons. Electron microscopes can achieve very high resolution and are often used to study samples at the nanoscale.
  2. Compound microscopes: Compound microscopes use light to create an image of the sample. They have two main components: an objective lens that is located close to the sample and a eyepiece lens that is located near the observer’s eye. Compound microscopes are often used to study biological samples, such as cells and tissues, as well as small mechanical parts. They can achieve high resolution, but are typically limited to studying samples at the micrometer scale.

There are a few key differences between these types of microscopes:

  1. Image contrast: Electron microscopes create images based on the interaction of electrons with the sample, while compound microscopes create images based on the refraction of light through the sample.
  2. Sample preparation: Electron microscopes often require samples to be prepared in a specific way, such as by coating them with a thin layer of metal or by embedding them in a resin. Compound microscopes typically do not require any special sample preparation.
  3. Resolution: Electron microscopes can achieve very high resolution, often at the atomic scale, while compound microscopes typically have lower resolution.
  4. Scale: Electron microscopes are typically used to study samples at the nanoscale, while compound microscopes are typically used to study samples at the micrometer scale.

Overall, electron microscopes and compound microscopes are both useful tools for studying samples at a small scale, but they are used for different purposes and have different capabilities.

Types of Microscopes with their applications ppt

Types of Microscopes with their applications Video


FAQ

Q1. What are two types of electron microscopes?

There are two main types of electron microscopes: transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning electron microscopes (SEMs).

  1. Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs): TEMs use a beam of electrons to create an image of a thin sample by transmitting the electrons through the sample and recording the resulting image on a fluorescent screen or a digital detector. TEMs are capable of producing high-resolution images of samples with a resolution of just a few nanometers, making them useful for studying the internal structure of materials and small biological specimens.
  2. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs): SEMs use a beam of electrons to create an image of the surface of a sample by scanning the surface with the beam and recording the resulting image on a fluorescent screen or a digital detector. SEMs are capable of producing high-resolution images of the surface features of a sample, with a resolution of just a few nanometers. They are commonly used to study the surface features of materials and biological specimens.

Q2. What are the types of microscopes?

There are several different types of microscopes, each of which uses a different method to magnify and analyze samples. Some common types of microscopes include:

  1. Optical microscopes: These use lenses and light to magnify and analyze samples, and include microscopes such as compound microscopes, stereo microscopes, and polarizing microscopes.
  2. Electron microscopes: These use a beam of electrons to create an image of a sample and include transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning electron microscopes (SEMs).
  3. Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs): These use a very sharp probe to scan the surface of a sample and create high-resolution images of its topography. Examples include atomic force microscopes (AFMs), scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs), and scanning near-field optical microscopes (SNOMs).
  4. Confocal microscopes: These use lasers and specialized optics to produce high-resolution images of samples by selectively illuminating small areas of the sample at a time.
  5. Fluorescence microscopes: These use fluorescent dyes to highlight specific structures or molecules in a sample and are commonly used in biological research.
  6. X-ray microscopes: These use X-rays to produce images of the internal structure of samples and are often used to study materials and biological specimens.
  7. Near-infrared microscopes: These use near-infrared light to produce images of samples and are often used to study the structure and function of tissues and cells.
  8. Raman microscopes: These use lasers to excite vibrations in the bonds of molecules, which can then be detected and used to identify the molecules present in a sample.

Q3. which of the following types of microscopes reveals the surface features of small molecules?

Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) are capable of revealing the surface features of small molecules. SEMs use a beam of electrons to create an image of the surface of a sample by scanning the surface with the beam and recording the resulting image on a fluorescent screen or a digital detector. SEMs are capable of producing high-resolution images of the surface features of a sample, with a resolution of just a few nanometers. They are commonly used to study the surface features of materials and biological specimens, including small molecules.

Q4. Which of the following types of microscopes can magnify more than 2000x?

Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) are capable of magnifying samples by more than 2000x. TEMs use a beam of electrons to create an image of a thin sample by transmitting the electrons through the sample and recording the resulting image on a fluorescent screen or a digital detector. TEMs are capable of producing high-resolution images of samples with a resolution of just a few nanometers, and are capable of magnifying samples by more than 2000x. They are commonly used to study the internal structure of materials and small biological specimens.

Q5. Explain why the several different types of microscopes are all necessary?

There are several different types of microscopes because each type of microscope is designed to analyze samples in a specific way and is best suited to certain types of applications. Different types of microscopes use different techniques to magnify and analyze samples, and each type has its own unique capabilities and limitations.

For example, optical microscopes, such as compound microscopes and stereo microscopes, use lenses and light to magnify and analyze samples, and are best suited for studying samples that are transparent or moderately opaque. These types of microscopes are commonly used in fields such as biology, materials science, and engineering to study the surface features of samples and to perform tasks such as dissection, assembly, and inspection.

On the other hand, electron microscopes, such as transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning electron microscopes (SEMs), use a beam of electrons to create an image of a sample and are best suited for studying samples that are too small or too dense to be studied with an optical microscope. These types of microscopes are commonly used in fields such as materials science, biology, and nanotechnology to study the internal structure of materials and small biological specimens.

Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs), such as atomic force microscopes (AFMs) and scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs), use a very sharp probe to scan the surface of a sample and create high-resolution images of its topography. SPMs are best suited for studying the surface properties of samples at the nanoscale, such as the electrical, mechanical, and magnetic properties of materials.

In summary, the different types of microscopes are all necessary because they allow researchers to study samples in different ways and to analyze a wide range of properties, including the surface and internal structure of materials, the electrical and optical properties of samples, and the topography of surfaces at the nanoscale.

Q6. what types of microscopes are used to study viruses?

There are several different types of microscopes that can be used to study viruses, depending on the properties of the virus and the specific type of analysis that is being performed. Some common types of microscopes that are used to study viruses include:

  1. Optical microscopes: These use lenses and light to magnify and analyze samples, and can be used to study the size and shape of viruses, as well as their surface features. Examples of optical microscopes that are commonly used to study viruses include compound microscopes, stereo microscopes, and polarizing microscopes.
  2. Electron microscopes: These use a beam of electrons to create an image of a sample and can be used to study the internal structure of viruses and other small biological specimens. Examples of electron microscopes that are commonly used to study viruses include transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning electron microscopes (SEMs).
  3. Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs): These use a very sharp probe to scan the surface of a sample and create high-resolution images of its topography. Examples of SPMs that are commonly used to study viruses include atomic force microscopes (AFMs) and scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs).
  4. Confocal microscopes: These use lasers and specialized optics to produce high-resolution images of samples by selectively illuminating small areas of the sample at a time. Confocal microscopes can be used to study the structure and distribution of viruses in tissues and cells.
  5. Fluorescence microscopes: These use fluorescent dyes to highlight specific structures or molecules in a sample and can be used to study the distribution and interaction of viruses with host cells.
  6. X-ray microscopes: These use X-rays to produce images of the internal structure of samples and can be used to study the internal structure of viruses and other small biological specimens.
  7. Near-infrared microscopes: These use near-infrared light to produce images of samples and can be used to study the distribution and interaction of viruses with host cells.
  8. Raman microscopes: These use lasers to excite vibrations in the bonds of molecules, which can then be detected and used to identify the molecules present in a sample. Raman microscopes can be used to study the chemical composition of viruses and other small biological specimens.

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APA

MN Editors. (July 7, 2020).Different Types of Microscopes with Definitions, Principle, Uses, Labeled Diagrams. Retrieved from https://microbiologynote.com/different-types-of-microscopes-with-definitions-principle-uses-labeled-diagrams/

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