Glossary Archive – Microbiology Note

AB toxins

Exotoxins composed of two parts (A and B). The B portion is responsible for toxin binding to a cell...

Jul 20, 2020 · 7 sec read >

AB toxins

AB toxins Exotoxins composed of two parts (A and B). The B portion is responsible for toxin binding to...

Sep 26, 2020 · 8 sec read >

Accessory pigments

Photosynthetic pigments such as carotenoids and phycobiliproteins that aid chlorophyll in trapping light energy.  

Jan 1, 2021 · 3 sec read >

Acetyl-CoA pathway

Acetyl-CoA pathway A biochemical pathway used by methanogens to fix C02 and by acetogenins to generate acetic acid.  

Sep 26, 2020 · 4 sec read >

Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA)

Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) A combination of acetic acid and coenzyme A that is energy-rich; it is produced by many...

Sep 26, 2020 · 7 sec read >


Acid-fast acid-fast Refers to bacteria (e.g., mycobacteria) that cannot be easily decolorized with acid alcohol after being stained with...

Sep 26, 2020 · 5 sec read >

Acid-fast staining

Acid-fast staining A staining procedure that differentiates between bacteria based on their ability to retain a dye when washed...

Sep 26, 2020 · 5 sec read >

Acidic dyes

acidic dyes Dyes that are anionic or have negatively charged groups such as carboxyls.  

Sep 26, 2020 · 3 sec read >


A microorganism that has its growth optimum between about pH 0 and 5.5.  

Jul 20, 2020 · 2 sec read >

Acquired immune tolerance

Acquired immune tolerance The ability to produce antibodies against nonself antigens while “tolerating” (not producing antibodies against) self antigens....

Jan 1, 2021 · 4 sec read >

Actin filaments

Actin filaments One of the proteinaceous components of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton; also called microfilaments.  

Jan 1, 2021 · 3 sec read >


Actinobacteria (ak0tĭ-no-bak-tēr-e-ah) A group of Gram-positive bacteria containing actinomycetes and their high G 1 C relatives.  

Jan 1, 2021 · 4 sec read >


Actinomycete (ak0tĭ-no-mi9sēt) An aerobic, Gram-positive bacterium that forms branching filaments (hyphae) and asexual spores.  

Jan 1, 2021 · 4 sec read >


Actinorhizae Associations between actinomycetes and plant roots.  

Jan 1, 2021 · 1 sec read >

Activated sludge

Activated sludge Solid matter or sediment composed of actively growing microorganisms that participate in the aerobic portion of a...

Jan 1, 2021 · 5 sec read >


Affinity refers to the intensity of attraction between the antigen and antibody molecules. It is a function of the closeness...

Jun 29, 2020 · 7 sec read >


    An allergy is a condition in which the body’s immune system responds to a foreign substance, usually...

Jun 14, 2020 · 18 sec read >

Allosteric enzyme

Allosteric enzyme An enzyme whose activity is altered by the noncovalent binding of a small molecule (allosteric effector) at...

Jan 1, 2021 · 9 sec read >

Antimicrobial categories

Antimicrobial categories are classifications of antimicrobial agents based on their mode of action and specific to target organisms  

Jun 16, 2020 · 4 sec read >


Avidity is the strength of the bond after the formation of the antigen antibody complexes. It reflects the overall combining...

Jun 29, 2020 · 8 sec read >