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Whittaker’s Five Kingdom Classification – Criteria, Advantages and Limitations

Whittaker's Five Kingdom Classification

Whittaker’s Five Kingdom Classification brings evolutionary changes in classification system of organisms. Since the centuries, biologists are trying to classify organisms in different ways. Even, Greek philosopher and polymath Aristotle tried to classify organisms on the basis of their habitats, such as whether they lived on land, water, or air.  Then Carolus Linnaeus proposed a … Read more

Cell membrane (Plasma Membrane) Structures and Functions

Cell membrane structures and functions

Cell membrane (also called”the plasma membrane (PM) or the cytoplasmic membrane and has been traditionally known as”the plasmalemma) is a membrane in the body which separates the inner part and exterior of cells. It also separates them from their external environment (the extracellular spaces) and shields cells from the elements.

Archaea – Definition, Habitat, Characteristics, Importance, Examples

Archaea - Definition, Habitat, Characteristics, Importance, Examples

What is Archaea? Definition of Archaea Archaea are a domain of single-celled prokaryotic organisms distinct from bacteria, characterized by unique genetic, metabolic, and cellular features, and often found in extreme environments. Habitat of Archaea Archaea, once believed to be confined solely to extreme environments, have been discovered to be omnipresent across diverse habitats, thanks to … Read more

Control Group – Definition, Importance, Examples

Control Group

What is Control Group? Definition of Control Group A control group is a set of subjects in a scientific experiment who do not receive the treatment or intervention being studied, serving as a benchmark for comparison against the treatment group to determine the effect of the variable under investigation. Importance of Control Group The control … Read more

Controlled Experiment – Definition, Process, Importance, Examples

Controlled Experiment - Definition, Process, Importance, Examples

What is Controlled Experiment? Definition of Controlled Experiment A controlled experiment is a scientific investigation in which a researcher deliberately manipulates a specific variable, while keeping all other variables constant, to determine its effect on a system under study. How Does Controlled Experiment Works? A controlled experiment works by systematically testing a hypothesis through the … Read more

3 Domains of Life – Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

What is 3 Domains of Life? The intricate tapestry of life, as we understand it today, is a culmination of extensive scientific research and discoveries. Historically, the living world was bifurcated into two primary domains: Eukaryotes (Eukarya) and Prokaryotes (Bacteria). This classification was rooted in microscopic observations, particularly the presence or absence of membrane-bound nuclei … Read more

Domain – Definition, Development, Importance, Examples

Domain - Definition, Development, Importance, Examples

What is Domain? Definition of Domain In biology, a domain is the highest taxonomic rank used to categorize and group organisms based on shared characteristics and evolutionary history. Domain in the Tree of Life Development of the Domain System The conception and evolution of the domain system, a fundamental framework for the classification of life, … Read more

Endosymbiotic Theory – Origin of the eukaryotic cell

Endosymbiotic Theory - Origin of the eukaryotic cell

What is Endosymbiotic Theory? Definition of Endosymbiotic Theory The Endosymbiotic Theory posits that certain organelles in eukaryotic cells, specifically mitochondria and chloroplasts, originated from free-living prokaryotic cells that were engulfed by ancestral eukaryotic cells, leading to a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship. Origin of the eukaryotic cell 1. Gene Trees and the Complexity of Eukaryotic Origins … Read more

Experimental Group – Definition, Importance, Examples

Experimental Group - Definition, Importance, Examples

What is Experimental Group? Definition of Experimental Group The experimental group, in scientific research, refers to the group subjected to specific changes or treatments in a variable to observe and evaluate potential outcomes, in contrast to a control group which remains unaltered or standardized for comparison. How Does an Experimental Group Work? In the context … Read more

Genus – Definition, Advantages, Uses, Examples

Genus - Definition, Advantages, Uses, Examples

What is Genus? Definition of Genus A genus is a taxonomic rank in biological classification that groups together species with shared characteristics or evolutionary lineage, positioned above species and below family. Classification System The Naming System In the realm of biological taxonomy, the system of binomial nomenclature stands as a cornerstone for naming organisms. This … Read more

Histology – Definition, Methods, Careers, Importance

Histology - Definition, Methods, Careers, Importance

What is Histology? Definition of Histology Histology is the scientific study of the microscopic structure of biological tissues. Sample preparation Methods in Histology Histological analysis necessitates meticulous sample preparation to ensure accurate microscopic observation. The preparation techniques vary based on the specimen type and the intended observation method. Herein, we delineate the primary steps involved … Read more

Microevolution – Definition, Causes, Examples

Microevolution - Definition, Causes, Examples

What is Microevolution? Definition of Microevolution Microevolution refers to small-scale changes in allele frequencies within a population over a relatively short period of time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, selection, gene flow, and genetic drift. Causes of Microevolution 1. Mutation 2. Selection 3. Genetic drift 4. Gene flow Difference between microevolution and macroevolution Microevolution … Read more

Microorganism – Definition, Types, Importance, Examples

Microorganism - Definition, Types, Importance, Examples

What is Microorganism? Definition of Microorganism A microorganism, or microbe, is a tiny living organism that is invisible to the naked eye and can exist as single-celled entities or colonies of cells. Discovery of Microorganisms Microorganisms, despite their minuscule size, have had a profound impact on our understanding of life and disease. The journey of … Read more

Motility – Definition, Types, Importance, Examples

Motility - Definition, Types, Importance, Examples

What is Motility? Definition of Motility Motility refers to the ability of an organism or cell to move autonomously by utilizing metabolic energy. Types of Motility Motility, a fundamental biological phenomenon, is exhibited through various mechanisms across different organisms. The mechanisms underlying motility are intricate, reflecting the evolutionary adaptations of organisms to their environments. Here, … Read more

Feedback Mechanism – Definition, Types, Mechanism, Examples

Feedback Mechanism - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Examples

What is Feedback mechanism? Definition of Feedback mechanism A feedback mechanism is a regulatory system within a process or organism that responds to changes by either amplifying (positive feedback) or counteracting (negative feedback) them to maintain equilibrium or homeostasis. Open and Closed-Loop Feedback Mechanisms Feedback loops are integral components in the maintenance of homeostasis within … Read more

Negative Feedback – Definition, Mechanism, Importance, Examples

Negative Feedback

What is Negative Feedback? Definition of Negative Feedback Negative feedback is a regulatory mechanism in biological systems where the final product of a process inhibits its own production, ensuring stability and homeostasis. Negative Feedback Mechanism Importance of Negative Feedback In summary, negative feedback is a cornerstone mechanism in both biological and man-made systems. Its importance … Read more

Obligate Anaerobes – Definition, Identification, Mechanism, Uses, Examples

Obligate Anaerobes - Definition, Identification, Mechanism, Uses, Examples

What is Obligate Anaerobes? Definition of Obligate Anaerobes Obligate anaerobes are microorganisms that exclusively thrive in oxygen-deprived environments and are adversely affected or killed by the presence of oxygen. Oxygen sensitivity of Obligate Anaerobes How Obligate Anaerobes are identified? The identification of obligate anaerobes is achieved through a systematic approach involving the use of thioglycollate … Read more

Organism – Definition, Types, Structure, Examples

Organism - Definition, Types, Structure, Examples

What is Organism? Definition of Organism An organism is a living entity composed of one or more cells, capable of growth, reproduction, and response to stimuli, functioning as an individual life form. Structure of an Organism Every organism, whether unicellular or multicellular, is fundamentally composed of cells, the basic structural and functional units of life. … Read more

Osmotic Pressure – Definition, Equations, Types, Importance, Examples

Osmotic Pressure - Definition, Equations, Types, Importance, Examples

What is Osmotic Pressure? Definition of Osmotic Pressure Osmotic pressure is the force required to prevent the flow of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane due to differences in solute concentrations between two solutions. Osmotic Pressure Equation Osmotic pressure, a fundamental concept in the study of solutions, can be quantitatively described using a specific equation. … Read more

Phenotype – Definition, Importance, Examples

Phenotype - Definition, Importance, Examples

What is Phenotype? Definition of Phenotype The phenotype is the observable set of characteristics or traits of an organism, resulting from the interaction of its genetic makeup (genotype) with the environment. What is Extreme Phenotype? In the intricate domain of genetics, the concept of an “extreme phenotype” is pivotal in understanding the variations that can … Read more

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