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High-Pressure Processing (HPP) – Dfinition, Principle, Process, Applications

High-Pressure Processing (HPP) - Dfinition, Principle, Process, Applications

What is High-Pressure Processing (HPP)? When was High Pressure Processing invented? High Pressure Processing (HPP) was invented in June 1899 by Bert Holmes Hite, a researcher from the University of West Virginia. Hite demonstrated the inactivation of microorganisms using high hydrostatic pressure, marking the first documented use of pressure as a food preservation method. Following … Read more

Food Irradiation – Definition, Symbol, Process, Applications, Disadvantages

Food Irradiation - Definition, Symbol, Process, Applications, Disadvantages

What is irradiation in food? Food irradiation definition Food irradiation refers to the process of exposing food and its packaging to ionizing radiation, such as gamma rays, x-rays, or electron beams. This method is used to improve food safety and extend the shelf life of products by effectively destroying microorganisms responsible for spoilage and foodborne … Read more

Clostridium perfringens Food Poisoning

Clostridium perfringens Food Poisoning

Characteristics of Clostridium perfringens Factors Contributing to C. perfringens Type A Foodborne Disease Source of contamination of Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens enterotoxins Epidemiology of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning Synthesis and Release of CPE Effects of CPE on the GI Tract  Pathogenesis of C. perfringens Food Poisoning  Source of Enterotoxigenic C. perfringens Strains in Food  Clinical Features of Clostridium perfringens … Read more

Botulism Food Poisoning by Clostridium botulinum

Botulism Food Poisoning

What is Botulism Food Poisoning? Botulism food poisoning is a severe and potentially life-threatening illness caused by the consumption of food contaminated with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). Here are the key points about botulism food poisoning: Preventing botulism food poisoning involves proper food handling and storage practices, such as ensuring adequate heat treatment during cooking, avoiding … Read more

Spoilage and Defects of Fermented Dairy Products 

Spoilage and Defects of Fermented Dairy Products 

For its production, fermented milk and cheese require a specific fermentation or series of fermentations. Therefore, any abnormalities in these fermentations will harm the product’s quality and may even cause it to spoil. Even the final product may be susceptible to deterioration by microbes. Fermented Milks  Cheese Cheese defects may be caused by mechanical or … Read more

Fermentation Foods – Vinegar

Fermentation Foods - Vinegar

At normal temperatures, the normal progression of changes in fruit juices is alcoholic fermentation by yeasts, followed by oxidation of the alcohol to acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria. When enough acetic acid is created, vinegar is the result. Vinegar is a condiment produced from sweet or starchy sources through alcoholic fermentation followed by acetic … Read more

Fermentation Foods – Wines

Fermentation Foods - Wines

Unless otherwise indicated, the term wine refers to the beverage produced by the alcoholic fermentation of grapes or grape juice by yeasts, followed by ageing. However, wines can be prepared by fermenting the juices of fruits, berries, rhubarb, dandelions, and honey, among others. Grape Wine The majority of grape wines are either red or white. … Read more

Traditional Indian Fermented Foods 

Traditional Indian Fermented Foods 

Dahi  Idli  Dosa Dhokla  Fermented Leafy Vegetables Ziang sang/Ziang dui  Sinki  Gundruk  Goyang  Fermented Fish Products  Ngari  Hentak  Tungtap  Fermented Beans  Kinema  Hawaiijar  Tungrumbai  Ankhone/Bekang/Peruyyan  Fermented Bamboo Shoots  Soibum/Soidon  Mesu  Lung-Seij  Bas-tenga  Miya Mikhri  Ekung/Hirring  Fermented Alcoholic Beverages  Ennog/Sai Mod  Apong  Kodo ko Jaanr  Xaj-pani  Zutho  Judima  Antingba  Kiad  Sujen 

Fermentation Foods – Bread

Fermentation Foods - Bread

In breadmaking, microorganisms are useful in two primary ways: (1) they can produce gas to leaven the dough, giving it the desired loose, porous texture, and (2) they can produce flavorful substances. They may also play a role in dough conditioning. Leavening  Leavening by Bread Yeasts  Leavening by Other Microorganisms  Leavening by Chemicals  Continuous Breadmaking  … Read more

Cultures Production for Food Fermentations

Cultures Production for Food Fermentations

General Principles of Culture Maintenance and Preparation  Selection of Cultures Maintenance of Activity of Cultures  Maintenance of Purity of Cultures  Preparation of Cultures  Activity of Culture  Mixed Cultures  Bacterial Cultures  With the exception of the propionic acid bacteria added to Swiss cheese, the majority of the bacterial cultures used as starters in dairy products, sausage, … Read more

Preservation and Spoilage of Canned Foods

Preservation and Spoilage of Canned Foods

Causes of Canned Foods Spoilage  Appearance of The Unopened Container Types of Biological Spoilage of Canned Foods  Typically, types of microorganism-induced spoiling of canned foods are separated into those caused by thermophilic bacteria and those caused by mesophilic microorganisms. Other approaches for categorising types of food spoilage are based on the types of changes that … Read more

Preservation, and Spoilage of Milk and Milk Products

Preservation, and Spoilage of Milk and Milk Products

Milk and milk products that provide nutrition have been of fundamental importance since ancient times. These are aids for improving the economic status of farmers and sellers, as well as the health of consumers. However, microbial contamination may cause these products to spoil, resulting in the potential loss of not only producers and sellers, but … Read more

Microbial spoilage of fish and fish products and its preservation

Preservation, and Spoilage of Fish and Other Seafoods

Contamination of Fish and Other Seafoods Contamination of fish and other seafood can occur through various factors throughout the harvesting, handling, and processing stages. Understanding these potential sources of contamination is crucial for ensuring the safety and quality of seafood products. Here are some key factors that contribute to the contamination of fish and other … Read more

Preservation, and Spoilage of Poultry

Preservation, and Spoilage of Poultry

The discussion of poultry focuses primarily on chicken meat, but the principles also apply to the meat of turkey, geese, ducks, and squab. Contamination of Poultry Preservation of Poultry 1. Asepsis  2. Use of Heat  3. Use of Low Temperatures  a. Chilling  b. Freezing  4. Use of Preservatives  5. Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere  6. Use of … Read more

Preservation, and Spoilage of Vegetables and Fruit

Preservation, and Spoilage of Vegetables and Fruit

Contamination of Vegetables And Fruit Preservation of Vegetables  Microorganisms on the surfaces of freshly picked fruits and vegetables comprise not just the regular surface flora, but also microorganisms from the soil and water, and possibly plant diseases. Additionally, a variety of moulds and occasionally a few yeasts may be present. Some germs may thrive between … Read more

Preservation and Spoilage of Sugars and Sugar Products

Preservation and Spoilage of Sugars and Sugar Products

Contamination Of Sugars And Sugar Products Sucrose  Maple Syrup  Honey  Candy  Preservation Spoilage Sucrose During the production of sugar, the original cane or beet juice becomes increasingly purified toward sucrose and the concentration of sugar in solution increases until crystalline sugar and high-sugar molasses are produced. The more pure a product is, the less suitable … Read more

Contamination, Preservation, and Spoilage of Cereals and Cereal Products

Spoilage of Cereals and Cereal Products

What is spoilage? Contamination of Cereals and Cereal Products Contamination source of cereal products Cereal products, such as grains and flour, can be susceptible to contamination from various sources throughout their production and supply chain. Understanding these potential sources is crucial for ensuring the safety and quality of these food items. Here are some common … Read more

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