Bacterial Diseases The worldwide issue of deadly and infectious infections due to bacteria are fast becoming one of the biggest medical and scientific concerns at this moment.
What is a bacteria? It is a microscopic microorganism classified as a domain eukarya under the Monera kingdom. From a microscope view Bacteria have cell walls, but not nucleus or organelles.
There are various kinds of bacteria (good and bad) however, we will examine a list of terrifying illnesses that are caused by bacteria harmful to humans on this webpage.
History of Bacterial Diseases
There are numerous instances of evidence in the form of sculptures and books that portrayed the bacterial illnesses that were prevalent in antiquated Egyptian and even ancient Chinese time (3000 BCE) for hundreds of years. Even though we live in the modern age with advancements in biotechnology and medicine, the primary reason for death across the globe continues to be bacterial illnesses. Find out more about the history here.
The following diseases are believed to be the most deadly list of bacterial diseases that even the most powerful antibiotics available today aren’t able to kill.
Top Infectious and Deadliest Bacterial Diseases
Here are some of the different types of bacterial illnesses that are caused by the various agents found in all over the globe of bacteria.
Anthrax (Causative agent: Bacillus anthracis.)
The first bacterial infection on this list is anthrax. It’s which is a serious infection due to the rod-shaped Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus anthracis (refer to all forms of bacteria in this list). Anthrax can be found in three forms that include pneumonia, lung anthrax skin anthrax, intestinal anthrax. Each of these types if not treated promptly can lead in death.
In the majority of cases the anthrax bacterium is found in spores that can be discovered in soil. In this state the bacteria could persist for a long time and then become intolerant to radiation and heat. This bacterium is commonly utilized in bioterrorism. Terrorists release spores of the bacteria in public areas, or mail letters with spores.
Tetanus (Causative agent: Clostridium tetani.)
The following bacterial infection is called lockjaw. Tetanus is a deadly bacterial infection which affects the brain and nerve system. This is due to the bacteria Clostridium tetani which creates an toxin that causes muscle paralysis.
The infection may cause breathing difficulties and spasms due to the toxin that interferes with nerves that control movement. The most common sources for the bacteria are contaminated saliva, Fecal matter, unsanitary surgical procedures, and animal and insect bites.
Leptospirosis (Causative agent: Leptospira sp.)
Leptospirosis can be described as a bacterial infection which can develop when the nose, eyes as well as an opening are exposed to water or soil which is contaminated by the bacteria. The bacteria are typically present in urine of animals. If left untreated this infection may cause damage to the liver, kidneys lung, kidneys, and the brain. In worst cases, it may cause death.
Tuberculosis (Causative agent: Mycobacterium tuberculosis.)
Tuberculosis can be a highly infectious disease that attacks the lungs. Its symptoms include weight loss, fever frequent coughing and night sweats that can last for several months. The causative agent for tuberculosis (or more commonly referred to as TB) is an airborne pathogenic bacterium that can be passed from one person to the next through coughing and sneezing.
Pneumonia (Causative agent: Klebsiella pneumoniae.)
Pneumonia is an illness that affects the lungs. It is caused by viruses, bacteria as well as fungi. When the lungs become infected with the bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs are full of pus which makes breathing difficult. The symptoms of this infection are cough and phlegm and shortness of breath. Other symptoms include discomfort in the chest, fever and chills at night.
Cholera (Causative agent: Vibrio cholerae.)
Cholera is a kind of bacterial infection that is usually manifested by diarrhea that is watery and extreme dehydration. If left untreated it can cause death. The infection can be caused by drinking water or eating food which is contaminated with bacteria. The bacteria Vibrio Cholerae, which is typically found in environments with poor sanitation, produce the toxin which poisons the intestines.
Botulism (Causative agent: Clostridium botulinum.)
Botulism is an uncommon and possibly fatal disease caused by a toxins produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. The illness begins with blurred vision, weakness as well as fatigue and difficulty speaking. It can then develop into weakness in the chest muscles, arms and legs. The swelling and vomiting in the stomach, as well as diarrhea can be a part of the. The illness does not typically alter consciousness or trigger a fever.
Botulism can be transmitted in different ways. The spores of bacterial that cause it are found in water and soil. They create the botulinum toxins in response to lower levels of oxygen as well as certain temperature. Foodborne botulism occurs when food items containing the toxin are consumed. The infant botulism occurs when the bacteria grow in the intestines, and then releases the toxin. It is most often seen in infants younger than six months old, since defense mechanisms are developed after that period of time. Wound botulism is seen most often in people who use street drugs. In this case the spores infiltrate an injury, and when oxygen is not present releases the toxin. It cannot be passed directly between individuals. It is diagnosed when there is the bacteria or the toxin present within the individual in question.
Prevention is mostly through proper food preparation. The toxin, although not an organism, is eliminated by heating it to a temperature of over 85 degC (185 degrees Fahrenheit) for more than five minutes. Honey could contain the organism which is why honey should not be served to children younger than 12 months. Treatment is via an antitoxin. For those who have lost the ability to breathe by themselves mechanical ventilation could be required for a period of time. Antibiotics are often used to treat wound botulism. The death rate is between 5 and 10% of the population. Botulism is also a problem for many other animals. The word originates originated from Latin botulus which means sausage.
Pseudomonas Infection (Causative agent: Pseudomonas aeruginosa.)
Pseudomonas-related illnesses are that are caused by bacteria of the Pseudomonas genus. The bacteria are prevalent throughout the world like in water, soil, and even in plants. They are not usually responsible for illnesses in healthy individuals. If an infection does happen in a healthy individual, it’s typically moderate.
Infections that are more severe occur when people are admitted to hospital with other illness or condition or those with weak immune systems. Pseudomonades are a common pathogen that are involved in the spread of infections in hospital settings. A pathogen is a microorganism which creates illness. Infections that are contracted in hospitals are known as nosocomial illnesses.
Infections can affect any body part. The symptoms vary depending on which area in the body that’s affected. Antibiotics are employed to treat diseases. Pseudomonas can cause death for those who are already extremely sick.
MRSA Infection (Causative agent: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.)
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an infection caused by Staphylococcus (staph) bacteria. This kind organism is intolerant to a variety of different antibiotics.
These bacteria live naturally in the skin and nose and, in general, don’t cause harm. But, if they start to multiply in uncontrolled amounts, an MRSA infection could develop.
MRSA infections usually occur in the event of a cut or fracture on the skin. MRSA is highly infectious and is transmitted by direct contact with someone with the infection.
It is also possible to contract when you come into contact with a surface or object which has was touched by someone suffering from MRSA. While an MRSA infection can be very serious but it is treatable efficiently with antibiotics.
E.Coli Infection (Causative agent: Escherichia coli.)
The name implies that E.coli can be caused due to the fecal coliform bacteria E.coli. The symptoms of the disease have a similarity to those of diarrhea, which is followed by a high fever.
Diarrhea severity experienced during the course of this illness can range from bloody to watery. If not treated the bacteria can cause damage to other organs , such as the kidney. This can lead to permanent disability, or even death.
Meningitis (Causative agent: Neisseria meningitidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, E.coli.)
The meninges are the area of inflammation that causes Meningitis. Meninges are the three membranes that surround the spinal cord and the brain. Meningitis can develop when the meninges’ fluid gets infected.
The most frequently cited causes of meningitis include viral and bacteria-related infections. Other causes could include:
- Chemical irritation
- Allergies to drugs
Meningitis that is caused by bacteria or viruses are transmissible. They can be transmitted through coughing, sneezing or contact with someone close to.
Gonorrhea (Causative agent: Neisseria gonorrhoeae.)
Gonorrhea is also known as the clap an infection that is transmitted sexually (STI) that is caused by bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The infection may affect the mouth, genitals or the rectum. Men with the infection may feel pain or burn during urination and vaginal discharge or pain in the testicular area. Infected women can suffer from burning when they urinate or vaginal discharge, bleeding between menstrual cycles or pelvic pain. for women can include pelvic inflammation, and for men, epididymis inflammation. Most of the people infected however, do not show any signs. If not treated, gonorrhea could be spread to joints and heart valves.
Gonorrhea is transmitted by intimate contact between an affected person. This can be done through oral, anal, as well as vaginal sexual contact. It is also possible to spread from one mother to another at birth. The diagnosis is made by conducting a urine test and urethra of males or the cervix of females. Tests for every woman who is sexually active but less than 25 years old every year, as well as women who have new partners is recommended. The same applies to males who have sexual relations with males (MSM).
Gonorrhea can be avoided with condoms, sex with just one person who is healthy and not having sexual relations. Treatment usually involves azithromycin and ceftriaxone injections via mouth. It has been found that resistance has developed to many previously prescribed antibiotics, and higher doses of ceftriaxone may be needed. Testing is recommended every at least three months following treatment. Sexual partners who have been in the last two months must too be assessed.
Gonorrhea is a condition that affects around 0.8 percent in women, and 0.6 percent of men. It is estimated that between 33 and 106 million cases are reported every year, of the 498 million cases of treatable STI that also include the chlamydia virus, syphilis and trichomoniasis. The majority of infections in women occur in young adults. In 2015, the disease caused approximately 700 deaths. The first mentions of the disease date from before even the Common Era within the Old Testament. The term “semen” was first mentioned by Greek physician Galen around 200 CE who described the condition as “an unwelcome semen discharge”.
Bubonic Plague (Causative agent: Yersinia pestis.)
It is caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis Bubonic plague is thought as the most frequent kind of plague. The bacterial infection is typically caused by the growth of lymph nodes (called buboes) within the groin and armpits. The bacterium is typically transmitted by the flea that is infected. In the past the bubonic plague has been believed to be among the most deadly bacterial diseases since it claimed the lives of nearly 50 million persons during the 1300s.
Syphilis (Causative agent: Treponema pallidum.)
Not to be left out is a different bacterial illness that is that is transmitted through sexual activity. The bacteria Treponema pallidum is also transmitted through physical contact or long-term kissing. Additionally, pregnant mothers who are infected are able to transmit the bacterium and also the infection to their children during birth and labor. Syphilis can spread through sores, and may cause damage to organs such as eye, the brain as well as joints.