Membrane Filtration Method, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications.

Membrane Filtration

In this article, we will learn about the Membrane filtration methods, definition, applications, advantages, disadvantages. Before heading towards Membrane Filtration, you have to understand what is filtration? Membrane filtration is a method of separating particles or molecules from a liquid or gas stream using a semi-permeable membrane. The membrane acts as a barrier, allowing some … Read more

Plant Tissue Culture Definition, techniques, Media composition, types, application.

Plant tissue culture

Before learning about plant tissue culture, first you have to learn about tissue culture and its importance. So, lets jump to the main article- What is tissue culture? Plant tissue culture Definition Plant tissue culture is a technique that is utilized to sustain or grow plant cells, tissues, or organs in a sterile condition on … Read more

Culture medium Definition, Preparation, Classification

Culture medium Definition, Preparation, Classification

The food supply upon which microorganisms thrive in laboratories is termed as a culture medium or culture media. Culture Medium Definition The nutrient preparation on or in which a culture (microorganism) is grown in the laboratory is known as culture medium or culture media. A culture medium is a solid or liquid preparation utilized to … Read more

BOD Incubator – Definition, Principle, Components, Procedure, Application

BOD Incubator

What is BOD Incubator? BOD incubator Definition The BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) Incubator is a specialized laboratory instrument designed to provide a controlled temperature environment, typically around 20 degrees centigrade, for microbial and biochemical studies, particularly for assessing the oxygen demand of microorganisms in water samples. BOD incubator Principle Components of BOD Incubator The BOD … Read more

Incubator: Definition, Principle, Components, Types, Operating Procedure, Use.


Incubator definition  An incubator is an insulated and enclosed device used in biological laboratories. It creates an optimum environment which is required for the growth of microorganisms by providing optimum temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions such as the CO2 and oxygen content inside’s atmosphere. In laboratories, it is used to grow and maintain microbiological … Read more

Oil Immersion technique, objectives, Resolving Power, Used for, Types.

Oil Immersion

What is Oil Immersion? Oil immersion is a technique, used to increase the resolving power or microscopic resolution of a light microscope. This is done by immersing the objective lens and specimen into a transparent oil containing a high refractive index, as a result, it increases the numerical aperture of the objective lens. The immersion … Read more

Dissecting Microscope (Stereo Microscope) Definition, Uses, Parts, Principle.

Dissecting Microscope

Stereo microscopes, in contrast to compound light microscopes, often employ reflected illumination, or light reflected off an object’s surface, rather than transmitted (diascopic) illumination. When a specimen is too thick or opaque for compound microscopy, reflected light from the object enables for investigation. Unlike a compound microscope, transmitted illumination in most stereo microscopes is not … Read more

Confocal Microscope Principle, Uses, Parts, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

Confocal Microscope

Confocal microscopy has various advantages over conventional optical microscopy, including a short depth of field, the elimination of out-of-focus glare, and the ability to collect optical slices serially from thick specimens. A prominent use of confocal microscopy in the biomedical sciences is the imaging of either fixed or live cells and tissues that have typically … Read more

Phase Contrast Microscopy: definition, parts, uses, working principle.

Phase Contrast Microscopy

What is phase contrast microscopy? A phase contrast microscopy converts slight differences in refractive index and cell density into easily detected variation in light intensity to observe living cells. This microscope is used for visualization of cell culture and live cells. Living cells can be observed without any staining. Unstained specimens have absorbed no light, … Read more

Scanning Electron Microscope: Definition, Parts, Application, Principle, Advantages

Scanning Electron Microscope

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that generates images by scanning the surface of a specimen with a concentrated beam of electrons. Electrons interact with atoms in the sample, generating signals that carry information about the sample’s surface topography and composition. The electron beam is scanned in a raster scan … Read more

Transmission Electron Microscope: Definition, Parts, Working Principle, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages

Transmission Electron  Microscope (TEM)

What is transmission electron microscope? Parts of A Transmission Electron Microscope 1. Electron Gun Types of Electron Gun Used in Transmission Electron Microscope There are several types of electron guns that are used in transmission electron microscopes (TEMs), including: Overall, the type of electron gun used in a TEM depends on the specific requirements and … Read more

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