Acid Fast Stain – Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Result

Acid Fast Stain - Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Result

What is Acid Fast Stain? Objective of Acid Fast Stain Principle of Acid Fast Stain The principle of the Acid Fast Stain revolves around the unique characteristics of certain bacterial cells, particularly their resistance to conventional staining methods due to the presence of mycolic acid in their outer membrane. This expository explanation aims to elucidate … Read more

Chlamydia Under the Microscope

Chlamydia Under the Microscope

What is Chlamydia? Distribution of Chlamydia species Chlamydia species have a wide distribution across the world, and their prevalence varies in different regions. The family Chlamydiaceae, which includes the genus Chlamydia, is believed to have originated from the Order Chlamydiales approximately seven million years ago. However, evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections has been found dating … Read more

Giemsa Stain: Preparation, Procedure, Principle, Composition and Application

Giemsa Stain: Staining Procedure, Principle, Result and Application

The term Giemsa stain originated from a name of German chemist and bacteriologist Gustav Giemsa. He apply this stain with a combination of reagents to detect the presence of malaria parasites. This stain is used for nucleic acid staining and histopathological diagnosis of malaria and other parasites. Giemsa Stain is a types of Romanowsky stains … Read more

Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Staining – Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Results and Interpretation of Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Staining

What is Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Staining? Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining is a commonly used histological staining technique that is used to visualize the structure of cells and tissues in a sample. The staining is performed by first staining the tissue with hematoxylin, a basic dye that stains acidic structures such as the cytoplasm … Read more

Lactophenol Cotton Blue (LPCB) Mounts

Lactophenol Cotton Blue (LPCB) Mounts

The lactophenol cotton blue (LPCB) wet mount preparation is the most used method for staining and viewing fungus, and its preparation is straightforward. The formulation contains the following ingredients: As a mounting medium and staining agent, lactophenol cotton blue solution is used to prepare slides for microscopic study of fungus. Elements of fungi are dyed … Read more

Masson’s Trichrome Staining – Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Mouse skin stained with Masson's trichrome stain.

Trichrome stains, such as Masson’s Trichrome, derive its name from the three dyes utilised in the staining process. These three dyes are used to selectively stain muscle, collagen fibres, fibrin, and erythrocytes using acid-base chemistry. Initial placement of tissue slices in Bouin’s solution. As a mordant, Bouin’s solution links the dye to the specific tissue … Read more

Positive staining of Viruses – Principle, Procedure, Result

Results and interpretation of Positive Staining of Viruses

Since the late 1950s and early 1960s, the positive staining approach has been employed to increase the contrast of biological materials (tissues and cell structures, viruses, etc.). The samples are treated in heavy metal salt solutions that react with cellular structures using this technique and negative staining. Uranyl acetate and lead citrate are the most … Read more

Wheatley Trichrome Staining – Principle, Procedure, Uses

Wheatley Trichrome Staining - Principle, Procedure, Uses

What is Wheatley Trichrome Staining? In parasitology, intestinal protozoans are typically detected and identified from faeces samples using a specialised permanent technique called Wheatley Trichrome staining. Wheatley Trichrome Stain is suggested for use in qualitative methods for the detection, identification, and distinction of intestinal protozoa from background material. Typically, PVA-fixed or Schaudinn’s solution-preserved faecal specimens … Read more

Romanowsky Stains – Principle, Types, Applications

Principle of Romanowsky Stains

Romanowsky staining, also known as Romanowsky–Giemsa staining, is a classic staining technique that paved the way for several different but similar stains widely used in haematology (the study of blood) and cytopathology (the study of cells) (the study of diseased cells). Romanowsky stains are used to distinguish cells for microscopic study in pathological materials, particularly … Read more

Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) Staining – Principle, Procedure, result, Uses

Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) Staining

What is Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) Staining? Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining is a laboratory staining technique used to detect the presence of specific sugars and carbohydrates in tissue samples. The PAS stain highlights the presence of sugars, glycoproteins, and mucopolysaccharides in biological tissues and cells. The staining process is often used in the diagnosis of diseases … Read more

Auramine – Rhodamine Staining: Principle, Procedure, Result, Applications

Result and Interpretation of Auramine- Rhodamine Staining

What is Auramine- Rhodamine Staining? Principle of Auramine- Rhodamine Staining Auramine and Rhodamine are nonspecific fluorochrome dyes that are attracted to acid-fast microorganisms. In the case of Mycobacteria, the dyes can selectively bind to the mycolic acid present in the cell wall, allowing the stain to penetrate. This compound is resistant to acid-alcohol decolorizer solutions. … Read more

Silver Staining – Principle, Procedure, Applications

Silver Staining - Principle, Procedure, Applications

What is silver staining? Silver staining is a powerful and versatile technique used for the detection and identification of proteins in gels. This technique is accomplished by binding silver to the chemical terminal or side chains of amino groups, such as carboxyl and sulfhydryl groups. For decades, silver staining has been used to separate proteins … Read more

Grocott-Gomori’s Methenamine Silver Staining – Principle, Procedure, Applications

Results of Grocott-Gomori’s Methenamine Silver Staining

Grocott-Gomori’s Methenamine Silver Staining is a type of special staining technique used in microbiology and histology to visualize fungal organisms, specifically those that form characteristic spores known as arthroconidia. The staining technique was developed in the 1930s by Grocott and Gomori and is based on the use of silver and methenamine. The fungal cells are … Read more

Calcofluor White Staining – Principle, Procedure, Results, Applications

Calcofluor White Staining

In 1961, Darken reported the uptake of calcofluor white, a fluorescent brightener, by actively growing yeasts and higher fungi. Hageage and Harrington outlined the application of calcofluor white (CFW) to demonstrate hyphae and yeasts in clinical specimens. Monheit et al. utilised this dye for intraoperative identification of fungal infection on frozen sections of lung and … Read more

Amoeba Staining, Fixing, Techniques

Amoeba - Fixing, Staining Techniques

Amoeba (less often spelled ameba, or amoeba, plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae) is often referred to as an amoeboid, is kind of unicellular organism that has the capability of changing its form, mostly by retracting and expanding pseudopods. Amoebae do not belong to a single taxonomic class, They are found in all major lineages of the … Read more

Vacuole Staining – Observation of Vacuoles under Microscope

Vacuole Staining - Observation of Vacuoles under Microscope

A light microscope may be used to see and examine the vacuole’s structure. While the vacuole doesn’t stain as the other organelles of the cell (because it does not contain many constituents that stain) tests have demonstrated that staining is possible for this organelle because the vacuole’s sap absorbs and stores dyes that are colored.

Albert Stain Principle, Procedure, Result

Albert stain Principle, Procedure, Result

Different stains have been developed over time to distinguish bacteria species, separating them morphologically and the specific characteristics they possess. The most popular stain is Gram staining, acid-fast staining, and endospore staining. Each stain aims at identifying and defining bacteria according to their forms and morphologies.

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