(a) Continuous process of fermentation:
In continuous fermentation, the substrate and microorganisms are continuously added to the fermentation vessel, and the fermented product is continuously removed from the system. The continuous fermentation process allows for a steady-state operation, which can provide a more consistent product output compared to batch fermentation. The process is often used for large-scale production of ethanol, organic acids, enzymes, and other fermentation-based products.
(b) Method of penicillin production:
Penicillin production is typically carried out in large-scale fermenters using a batch process. The fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is grown in a nutrient-rich medium, which includes a carbon source, nitrogen source, and various other nutrients. The fermentation is carried out at a controlled temperature and pH, and the penicillin is harvested from the fermentation broth using various separation and purification techniques.
(c) HET strain for alcohol fermentation:
HET strain stands for High Ethanol Tolerance strain. These are strains of yeast that have been genetically modified or selected to have high ethanol tolerance. These strains are used in the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as wine, beer, and spirits to ensure that the fermentation process proceeds smoothly and to achieve higher ethanol concentrations in the final product.
(d) Ti-plasmid and its use in RDT:
Ti-plasmid is a tumor-inducing plasmid found in the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It is often used as a vector for genetic engineering in plants. The Ti-plasmid contains several genes that can transfer DNA into plant cells, allowing foreign genes to be inserted into the plant genome. This technique is called recombinant DNA technology (RDT), and it has many applications in agriculture and biotechnology, including the development of genetically modified crops.
(e) Recombinant insulin:
Recombinant insulin is a synthetic form of insulin produced using recombinant DNA technology. The gene for human insulin is inserted into a bacterial or yeast expression system, which then produces large amounts of insulin. Recombinant insulin is used to treat diabetes, a disease in which the body cannot produce enough insulin or cannot use it effectively. Recombinant insulin is identical to human insulin and has fewer side effects compared to insulin derived from animal sources.