Spermatogenesis is the process of formation of mature sperm cells or spermatozoa from the undifferentiated germ cells in the testes of the male reproductive system. The process of spermatogenesis takes place in the seminiferous tubules of the testes and is regulated by several hormones such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone.
Spermatogenesis can be divided into three main stages: mitosis, meiosis, and spermiogenesis. In the mitotic stage, the undifferentiated germ cells known as spermatogonia undergo cell division to produce two types of cells: Type A and Type B. Type A cells divide to form more Type A cells, while Type B cells differentiate into primary spermatocytes.
In the meiotic stage, the primary spermatocytes undergo two successive divisions to produce four haploid cells called spermatids. Each spermatid contains only half the number of chromosomes found in the parent cell.
In the final stage of spermatogenesis, spermiogenesis, the spermatids undergo structural and functional changes to become mature sperm cells or spermatozoa. The process involves the formation of an acrosome cap at the head region, elongation of the tail, and shedding of excess cytoplasm.
The mature spermatozoa are then transported to the epididymis for further maturation and storage until they are ejaculated during sexual intercourse.