Diapause and hibernation are two different mechanisms used by animals to survive unfavorable environmental conditions.
Diapause is a physiological state of arrested development that occurs in response to adverse environmental conditions, such as high temperatures, low food availability, or low photoperiods. During diapause, the animal's metabolism slows down, and growth and development stop. Diapause is typically seen in insects, and it can occur at any life stage, from egg to adult.
Hibernation, on the other hand, is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression that is triggered by low temperatures and reduced food availability. Hibernating animals reduce their metabolic rate, body temperature, and heart rate to conserve energy. Hibernation is typically seen in mammals such as bears, hedgehogs, and bats, and it occurs during the winter months.
Therefore, diapause is a state of arrested development triggered by unfavorable environmental conditions such as temperature, food availability or photoperiod, while hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression induced by low temperatures and reduced food availability.