(a) Radioactive wastes: Radioactive waste is a byproduct of nuclear power generation, nuclear weapons production, and other industrial, medical, and scientific processes that involve radioactive materials. Radioactive waste is dangerous because it emits ionizing radiation, which can harm human health and the environment. Radioactive waste can remain hazardous for thousands of years and requires special handling and disposal to prevent contamination. Safe storage and disposal of radioactive waste are critical to ensure public safety and protect the environment.
(b) Defunct ships and e-wastes: Defunct ships and e-waste are two examples of hazardous wastes generated from different sources. Defunct ships refer to vessels that are no longer operational or have reached the end of their useful life. These ships contain various hazardous materials, including asbestos, heavy metals, and fuel oils, which can pollute the marine environment. Safe disposal of defunct ships is essential to prevent the release of hazardous materials and protect the marine ecosystem.
E-waste refers to discarded electronic devices, including computers, televisions, and mobile phones. E-waste contains various hazardous materials such as lead, mercury, cadmium, and flame retardants, which can pollute the environment and pose a health risk to humans and wildlife. Proper disposal and management of e-waste are essential to prevent the release of toxic chemicals into the environment.
(c) Municipal solid wastes: Municipal solid waste (MSW) refers to the garbage generated from households, businesses, and institutions. MSW includes a variety of materials, including food waste, plastics, paper, glass, and metal. Improper disposal of MSW can pollute the environment, contaminate soil and water, and create health hazards. The three main ways of managing MSW are landfilling, incineration, and recycling. Reducing the amount of waste generated, promoting recycling and composting, and proper disposal are essential to minimize the impact of MSW on the environment.