(a) Greenhouse gases: Greenhouse gases are gases in the Earth's atmosphere that trap heat from the sun and contribute to the greenhouse effect. The main greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor, as well as others like nitrous oxide and fluorinated gases. Human activities such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation have led to an increase in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, which is causing global warming and climate change.
(b) Catalytic converter: A catalytic converter is a device installed in the exhaust systems of cars and other vehicles to reduce the emissions of harmful pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons. The catalytic converter works by using a catalyst to promote chemical reactions that convert these pollutants into less harmful gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water vapor. The use of catalytic converters has been successful in reducing air pollution from vehicles and improving air quality.
(c) Ultraviolet B: Ultraviolet B (UVB) is a type of ultraviolet radiation that comes from the sun and is responsible for causing sunburn and skin damage. It is also a major factor in the development of skin cancer. Increased exposure to UVB radiation has been linked to the depletion of the ozone layer, which absorbs some of this radiation. In addition to skin damage, increased UVB radiation can also have negative impacts on plant growth and marine ecosystems. UVB radiation can be reduced by measures such as reducing emissions of ozone-depleting substances and using protective measures such as sunscreen and protective clothing.