(i) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP):
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a common type of genetic variation in which a single nucleotide (A, T, C, or G) in the DNA sequence is changed. SNPs occur naturally in the genome and can be used as genetic markers to study genetic variation and its association with diseases. SNPs can also be used to track the inheritance of specific traits in families and populations.
SNPs are detected using various techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and microarray analysis. The identification of SNPs has revolutionized the field of genetics and has led to the development of personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to an individual's genetic makeup.
(ii) Bioinformatics databases:
Bioinformatics databases are centralized collections of biological data, which are organized and made available for analysis and interpretation by researchers. These databases contain a vast amount of information on various biological entities such as genes, proteins, genomes, pathways, diseases, and organisms.
Bioinformatics databases provide a valuable resource for researchers in the life sciences and facilitate various tasks such as sequence analysis, structural analysis, functional analysis, and comparative genomics. Some of the most widely used bioinformatics databases include NCBI, UniProt, PDB, KEGG, and Ensembl. These databases are updated regularly, and their data can be accessed through various search tools and web interfaces. The use of bioinformatics databases has greatly accelerated the pace of research in the life sciences and has led to new discoveries and breakthroughs in various fields.