(i) Secondary structure of proteins:
The secondary structure of proteins refers to the regular patterns of folding of the polypeptide backbone in a protein. The two most common types of secondary structures are alpha helices and beta sheets. In alpha helices, the polypeptide chain forms a right-handed helix stabilized by hydrogen bonds between the amino acid residues in the backbone. In beta sheets, the polypeptide chain forms a series of beta strands that are stabilized by hydrogen bonds between adjacent strands. The secondary structure of a protein is important for its function and stability, and can be predicted using computational methods based on the protein's amino acid sequence.
(ii) Designer oils:
Designer oils are oils that are modified to have specific properties, such as improved nutritional value or reduced environmental impact. This can be achieved through genetic engineering of oil-producing plants to produce oils with specific fatty acid profiles, or through chemical modification of existing oils. For example, designer oils may be modified to have a higher content of beneficial omega-3 fatty acids, or to have a reduced content of saturated fats. These modified oils have potential applications in food, fuel, and industrial products. However, the safety and regulatory implications of designer oils are still being evaluated.