(i) Shuttle vector: A shuttle vector is a type of vector used in genetic engineering that can replicate in multiple host organisms, usually bacteria and eukaryotic cells. It contains sequences that allow it to replicate in both types of hosts, making it a useful tool for cloning and gene expression studies across different organisms.
(ii) YAC: YAC stands for Yeast Artificial Chromosome, which is a type of vector used for cloning and manipulating large DNA fragments. It is based on the yeast chromosome and contains the sequences necessary for replication and maintenance in yeast cells. YACs are useful for studying complex genomes and for cloning large genes or gene clusters.
(iii) PCR: PCR stands for Polymerase Chain Reaction, which is a laboratory technique used to amplify a specific segment of DNA. It involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling that cause the DNA to denature and then reanneal, allowing the DNA polymerase enzyme to copy the target sequence. PCR is used in a wide variety of applications, including genetic testing, gene expression analysis, and forensic science.
(iv) Electroporation: Electroporation is a technique used to introduce DNA, RNA, or other molecules into cells by applying a high voltage electrical pulse to the cell. This creates temporary pores in the cell membrane, allowing the molecules to enter. Electroporation is commonly used in genetic engineering and gene therapy to introduce foreign DNA into cells for gene expression or editing.