The amplitude setting for an ultrasonic homogenizer when homogenizing tissue extracts can vary based on the specific type of tissue being processed, the volume of the sample, and the desired degree of homogenization. Ultrasonic homogenizers work by generating ultrasonic waves that create cavitation bubbles in the sample, leading to the disruption of cells and tissues.
Here are some general guidelines:
- Type of Tissue: Hard tissues (e.g., bone, cartilage) may require higher amplitudes than soft tissues (e.g., liver, brain).
- Sample Volume: Smaller sample volumes might require lower amplitudes, while larger volumes might require higher amplitudes.
- Degree of Homogenization: If you need a very fine homogenate, you might need to use a higher amplitude. Conversely, if you only need partial homogenization, a lower amplitude might suffice.
- Temperature: Ultrasonic homogenization can generate heat. If your sample is temperature-sensitive, you might need to use a lower amplitude and/or take measures to keep the sample cool, such as using an ice bath.
- Duration: The duration of homogenization can also affect the degree of tissue disruption. Short pulses with rest intervals can prevent overheating of the sample.
- Typically, amplitudes range from 20% to 100%. For tissue homogenization, starting at an amplitude of 40-60% is common, but this can be adjusted based on the results and the specific requirements of the sample.