Reflex Action – Definition, Types, Mechanism & Examples

What is Reflex Action?

  • Reflex action, also known as a reflex, is a fundamental mechanism of the nervous system that enables organisms to respond rapidly to external stimuli without conscious effort or thought. It is an automatic, rapid, and spontaneous protective response to a specific stimulus. Reflex actions play a crucial role in preventing injury and maintaining the overall well-being of an organism.
  • The process of reflex action involves several key components. First, there are sensory receptors located throughout the body that detect different types of stimuli, such as heat, pain, pressure, or light. When these receptors are stimulated, they generate electrical signals that are transmitted along sensory neurons towards the central nervous system.
  • In the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, the signals from the sensory neurons are processed. In the case of reflex actions, the signals are quickly relayed to interneurons, which act as connectors within the spinal cord. These interneurons form synaptic connections with motor neurons, which are responsible for activating the muscles or glands involved in the reflex.
  • Once the motor neurons receive the signal, they transmit electrical impulses to the specific muscles or glands, causing them to contract or secrete in response to the stimulus. This contraction or secretion produces the immediate and stereotyped reflexive response. Importantly, reflex actions occur without the involvement of conscious thought or decision-making processes.
  • Reflex arcs, the pathways that nerve impulses follow during a reflex, vary in complexity depending on the specific reflex involved. Some reflex arcs involve only three neurons: a sensory neuron, an interneuron, and a motor neuron. In these cases, the sensory neuron carries the signal from the receptor to the interneuron, which then relays the signal to the motor neuron, resulting in the reflexive response.
  • Examples of reflex actions are numerous and diverse. The dilation of the pupil in response to light, the jerky withdrawal of a hand or leg when pricked by a pin, coughing or sneezing due to nasal irritants, the knee-jerk response to a blow or someone stamping on the leg, the abrupt withdrawal of a hand from a sharp object, and the sudden blinking when an insect comes close to the eyes are all instances of reflex actions.
  • Reflex actions are an integral part of the body’s survival instinct. They provide swift and automatic responses to potentially harmful stimuli, allowing organisms to protect themselves from injury or danger. While many reflex actions are innate and occur without conscious control, some reflexes can be modified or inhibited by higher brain centers, demonstrating the complex interplay between reflexes and conscious processing.
  • In medical contexts, reflex testing is often performed to assess the function of the nervous system. By eliciting specific reflex responses and observing their characteristics, healthcare professionals can gather valuable information about the integrity and efficiency of neural pathways. Reflex testing can aid in diagnosing certain neurological conditions and evaluating the overall health of the nervous system.
  • In conclusion, reflex action is an automatic and rapid response to a stimulus that occurs without conscious effort or thought. It involves the coordination of sensory receptors, sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons, and effectors such as muscles or glands. Reflex actions play a crucial role in protecting the body from harm and are an essential component of the complex nervous system.

Definition of Reflex Action

Reflex action is an automatic and rapid response to a stimulus that occurs without conscious control or thought. It involves the activation of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons to produce a quick and stereotyped response, often for the purpose of self-preservation or protection.

Types of reflex Action

Reflex actions are an integral part of our daily lives, and various types of reflexes occur in our body without conscious thought. Here are some common types of reflex actions:

  1. Accommodation reflex: This reflex involves the adjustment of the eyes to focus on objects at different distances. The pupils, lens, and vergence of the eyes change their shape to accommodate the sight accordingly.
  2. Pupillary light reflex: When a light is flashed near one eye, both pupils contract. This reflex protects the eyes from excessive light. The optic nerve transmits impulses to the brain, which then sends signals to the pupillary muscles through autonomic nerves.
  3. Acoustic reflex: This reflex is associated with the contraction of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles in the middle ear. It responds to high-decibel sounds and helps protect the ears from damage.
  4. Ankle jerk reflex: Also known as the Achilles reflex, this reflex is tested by doctors to assess neurological function. It involves the jerking of the ankle when the Achilles tendon is tapped, helping to maintain balance and posture.
  5. Biceps reflex: When the biceps brachii tendon is struck, the forearm jerks in response. This reflex is used to test the integrity of the reflex arc and detect any abnormalities in neurological function.
  6. Blushing: Blushing is a reflex response characterized by the reddening of the face due to emotions such as embarrassment, shame, or modesty. It is a physiological response to psychological stimuli.
  7. Corneal reflex: When the cornea of either eye is touched, both eyes blink. This reflex protects the eyes from foreign objects and helps to keep the cornea moist.
  8. Cough reflex: When dust or foreign particles enter the trachea or respiratory tract, cough receptors are activated, leading to a cough. This reflex helps to clear the airway and remove the irritant before it reaches the lungs.
  9. Sneeze: Irritation of the nasal mucosa triggers the sneeze reflex, which forcefully expels air from the lungs through the nose. It helps to clear the nasal passages of irritants or foreign particles.

These reflex actions demonstrate the intricate mechanisms within our bodies that protect us and maintain our well-being. Understanding the different types of reflexes and their functions can provide insights into the complexity of our nervous system and its ability to respond automatically to various stimuli.

Physiology of Reflex Action

The physiology of reflex action involves the coordination of various components of the nervous system to produce a rapid and automatic response to a stimulus. Here are some key aspects of the physiology of reflex action:

  • Involuntary Response: Reflex actions are involuntary, meaning they occur without conscious control or thought. They are mediated by reflex arcs, which bypass the brain’s conscious processing and generate an automatic response.
  • Rapid Response Time: Reflex actions are known for their quick response time. They can occur within a few milliseconds of a stimulus being detected. This rapidity allows the body to respond swiftly to potential dangers or changes in the environment.
  • Involvement of Spinal Cord: Many reflex actions are mediated by the spinal cord. This allows for a faster response as the sensory neurons transmit the stimulus directly to the spinal cord, where the reflex arc is completed. Only afterward is the information transmitted to the brain for further processing.
  • Maintenance of Balance and Posture: Reflexes play a crucial role in maintaining balance and posture. Spinal reflexes, which control trunk and limb muscles, contribute to the body’s stability and coordination. These reflexes help us maintain an upright posture and adjust our movements to stay balanced.
  • Visceral and Somatic Reflexes: Reflex actions can be categorized into two types based on the type of muscles involved. Visceral reflexes involve smooth muscles, such as the reflex that controls the beating of the heart or the flow of bile from the gallbladder. Somatic reflexes, on the other hand, involve skeletal muscles, such as the knee-jerk reflex.
  • Awareness of Some Reflexes: While reflex actions are involuntary, some reflexes are within our knowledge and awareness. Examples include watering of the mouth in response to the smell or sight of food or blinking of the eyes to protect them from foreign objects. These reflexes are still automatic but can be consciously observed.
  • Unconscious Reflexes: Not all reflex actions are consciously perceived or known to us. For instance, the flow of bile from the gallbladder occurs without our knowledge or control. These reflexes are essential for maintaining various bodily functions and are regulated by the nervous system without conscious intervention.

The physiology of reflex action highlights the remarkable efficiency and speed of the nervous system in generating immediate responses to stimuli. These reflexes serve as protective mechanisms, maintaining homeostasis, and allowing us to adapt quickly to changes in our environment.

Mechanism of Reflex action

The mechanism of reflex action involves a series of physiological processes that enable the rapid and automatic response to a stimulus. Here is an overview of the key steps involved in the mechanism of reflex action:

Reflex Action Diagram
Reflex Action Diagram
  1. Stimulus Detection: The process begins with the detection of a stimulus by specialized sensory receptors in the body. These receptors are sensitive to specific types of stimuli, such as touch, temperature, or pain. In the example given, the pricking of a needle serves as the stimulus.
  2. Transmission of Impulses: Once the sensory receptors detect the stimulus, they generate electrical impulses. These impulses are transmitted through sensory neurons, also known as afferent neurons, towards the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord.
  3. Integration and Processing: The electrical impulses carrying the sensory information reach the CNS. In the case of reflex action, the processing primarily occurs in the spinal cord. The CNS rapidly analyzes the incoming sensory information and determines the appropriate response.
  4. Generation of Motor Response: After the integration and processing of sensory information, the CNS generates a motor response. This response is an automatic and predetermined action that is appropriate for the given stimulus. In the example of the needle prick, the response is to withdraw the hand or leg.
  5. Transmission of Motor Impulses: The motor response is conveyed from the CNS to the effectors, which are usually muscles or glands. Motor neurons, also known as efferent neurons, carry the motor impulses from the CNS to the target muscles or glands.
  6. Execution of Reflex Action: The motor impulses reach the muscles involved in the reflex action. In the example, the muscles in the hand or leg receive the motor impulses and contract, causing the immediate withdrawal of the organ from the location of the stimulus (needle prick).

It is important to note that reflex actions bypass conscious thought and voluntary control. The entire process occurs rapidly and automatically, ensuring a swift response to potential threats or changes in the environment. Reflex actions are protective in nature and help to prevent injury or harm to the body.

The mechanism of reflex action showcases the remarkable coordination between sensory receptors, the nervous system, and effectors. This rapid and efficient process allows for quick adjustments and responses to various stimuli, contributing to the body’s overall safety and well-being.


Benefits of Reflex action

Reflex actions provide several benefits that contribute to the survival and well-being of animals, including humans. Here are some key advantages of reflex action:

  1. Rapid Response: Reflex actions allow for an immediate response to a stimulus without the need for conscious thought or decision-making. This speed is crucial in situations that require swift action, such as avoiding potential danger or escaping harm. Reflex actions bypass the time-consuming processes of conscious perception and analysis, enabling quick and instinctive reactions.
  2. Protective Mechanism: Reflex actions serve as a protective mechanism, helping to prevent injury or harm to the body. When faced with a threatening or harmful stimulus, reflex actions trigger an automatic response that aims to minimize or eliminate the potential danger. For example, jerking the hand away from a hot object or blinking to protect the eyes from a sudden foreign object are reflex actions that safeguard the body.
  3. Efficiency: Reflex actions operate efficiently and do not burden the brain with unnecessary cognitive processing. Since these actions occur automatically and do not require conscious effort, they allow the brain to focus on other cognitive tasks, decision-making, and higher-level thinking processes. Reflex actions handle routine and immediate responses, freeing up cognitive resources for more complex mental activities.
  4. Adaptability: Reflex actions can adapt to changing circumstances and stimuli. They are not fixed responses but can be modified based on previous experiences and learning. Through repetition and reinforcement, reflex actions can be refined and adjusted to optimize the body’s response to specific stimuli. This adaptability enhances the overall survival and functioning of animals in their environment.
  5. Energy Conservation: Reflex actions often involve minimal energy expenditure compared to voluntary actions. They are automatic and require fewer neural pathways and conscious control, resulting in energy conservation. By utilizing reflex actions for routine and immediate responses, the body can allocate energy resources more efficiently, ensuring sustained physiological functioning.
  6. Maintenance of Balance and Posture: Reflex actions play a crucial role in maintaining balance and posture. Various reflexes, such as the stretch reflex and vestibuloocular reflex, help to stabilize the body and coordinate muscle activity to maintain an upright position. These reflexes contribute to the overall coordination and motor control required for normal movement and balance.

In conclusion, reflex actions offer numerous benefits by providing rapid, protective, and efficient responses to stimuli. They enable immediate reactions, protect the body from harm, conserve energy, and contribute to the maintenance of balance and posture. Reflex actions are an integral part of the body’s survival mechanisms and help organisms adapt and respond effectively to their surroundings.


What is Reflex Arc?

A reflex arc is a neural pathway that mediates a reflex action in the body. It involves a series of steps that allow for the rapid and automatic response to a specific sensory stimulus. Here is an overview of the reflex arc:

  1. Receptor: The reflex arc begins with a specialized sensory receptor that detects a specific stimulus in the environment. Examples of receptors include pain receptors, thermoreceptors, or touch receptors in the skin.
  2. Afferent or Sensory Neuron: Once the receptor is activated by the stimulus, sensory information is transmitted as electrical signals through sensory neurons, also known as afferent neurons. These neurons carry the sensory impulse from the receptor to the central nervous system, which can be the spinal cord or the brain.
  3. Central Nervous System: The sensory impulse reaches the central nervous system, where it is processed and interpreted. In simple reflex arcs, such as the withdrawal reflex, the processing occurs in the spinal cord. In more complex reflexes, the impulse may be relayed to the brain for further analysis.
  4. Efferent or Motor Neuron: Based on the interpretation of the sensory impulse, the central nervous system generates a motor impulse, which is an electrical signal that carries the response command. This motor impulse is transmitted through motor neurons, also known as efferent neurons.
  5. Effector Organ: The motor impulse reaches an effector organ, such as a muscle or a gland. The effector organ carries out the response dictated by the motor impulse. For example, in the withdrawal reflex, the motor impulse causes the muscles to contract, resulting in the withdrawal of the body part from the stimulus.
  6. Interneurons: In some reflex arcs, there may be interneurons present between the sensory and motor neurons. Interneurons are located within the central nervous system and facilitate the processing and integration of sensory information before generating a motor response.
A flow chart showing the 7 components of a reflex arc, from the stimulus to the response.
A flow chart showing the 7 components of a reflex arc, from the stimulus to the response.

The reflex arc allows for the rapid and automatic execution of reflex actions without the involvement of conscious thought or decision-making processes. It provides a quick and efficient mechanism for the body to respond to potentially harmful or beneficial stimuli in the environment. Reflex arcs can be found throughout the body and play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis and protecting the body from potential harm.


Types of Reflex Arcs

Reflex arcs can be classified into two main types: autonomic reflex arcs and somatic reflex arcs. Additionally, reflex arcs can be further categorized based on whether they are monosynaptic or polysynaptic.

  1. Autonomic Reflex Arc: Autonomic reflex arcs are involved in regulating the activities of the body’s internal organs and glands. These reflexes are not under conscious control and are responsible for maintaining homeostasis. Examples of autonomic reflexes include the regulation of heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiratory rate.
  2. Somatic Reflex Arc: Somatic reflex arcs involve the contraction or relaxation of skeletal muscles. These reflexes are responsible for various voluntary and involuntary movements of the body. Examples of somatic reflexes include the knee-jerk reflex (patellar reflex) and the withdrawal reflex.
  3. Monosynaptic Reflex Arc: Monosynaptic reflex arcs consist of a single synapse between the sensory neuron and the motor neuron. These reflexes are characterized by a direct and rapid transmission of nerve impulses. An example of a monosynaptic reflex arc is the patellar reflex, where a tap on the patellar tendon leads to the contraction of the quadriceps muscle.
  4. Polysynaptic Reflex Arc: Polysynaptic reflex arcs involve one or more interneurons between the sensory and motor neurons. These interneurons facilitate complex processing and integration of sensory information before producing a motor response. The withdrawal reflex is an example of a polysynaptic reflex arc. In this reflex, a painful stimulus causes the sensory neurons to transmit signals to the spinal cord, where interneurons relay the information to motor neurons that produce the appropriate response, such as pulling the hand away from a hot surface.

It’s important to note that these classifications are not mutually exclusive, and many reflex arcs can exhibit characteristics of both autonomic and somatic reflexes or can involve both monosynaptic and polysynaptic pathways. The classification helps us understand the general characteristics and functions of different types of reflex arcs.

A diagram illustrating a reflex arc in response to touching a hot object.
A diagram illustrating a reflex arc in response to touching a hot object.

What is Spinal Reflexes?

Spinal reflexes are a type of reflex action that is mediated by the spinal cord without direct involvement of the brain. These reflexes are rapid and automatic responses to specific sensory stimuli and play a crucial role in maintaining posture, balance, and protecting the body from potential harm.

There are several types of spinal reflexes, including:

  1. Stretch Reflex: The stretch reflex is a monosynaptic reflex that helps maintain muscle tone and regulate muscle length. When a muscle is stretched, specialized sensory receptors called muscle spindles detect the change and send signals to the spinal cord. The spinal cord then initiates a reflexive contraction of the stretched muscle, preventing overstretching and helping to maintain posture.
  2. Golgi Tendon Reflex: The Golgi tendon reflex is a protective reflex that acts to prevent excessive tension in muscles and tendons. Golgi tendon organs, located at the junction of muscles and tendons, detect changes in muscle tension. When tension becomes too high, these sensory receptors send inhibitory signals to the spinal cord, leading to a reflexive relaxation of the muscle and reduction in tension.
  3. Crossed Extensor Reflex: The crossed extensor reflex is a polysynaptic reflex that occurs alongside the withdrawal reflex. When a painful stimulus is detected, such as stepping on a sharp object, the withdrawal reflex causes the injured leg to be pulled away. At the same time, the crossed extensor reflex is activated, resulting in the extension of the opposite leg to provide support and maintain balance.
  4. Withdrawal Reflex: The withdrawal reflex is a polysynaptic reflex that helps protect the body from potential harm. It is triggered by a painful or noxious stimulus, such as touching a hot surface. The sensory neurons detect the stimulus and transmit the signal to the spinal cord. In response, the spinal cord activates motor neurons, causing the affected limb to rapidly withdraw from the source of the stimulus.

Spinal reflexes are essential for the body’s immediate and automatic response to certain stimuli. By involving the spinal cord in the reflex arc, these reflexes can occur more quickly since the signal does not need to travel to the brain for processing. This allows for rapid protective actions and helps to maintain stability and coordination.

Golgi tendon organ
Golgi tendon organ

The Action of Neuron 

The action of neurons plays a crucial role in the execution of reflex actions. Reflex actions involve the coordination of afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) nerves, which work together to initiate and carry out the reflex response. Here is a breakdown of the action of neurons in a reflex action:

  1. Stimulus Detection: The reflex action begins when a sensory receptor, such as a pain receptor or a touch receptor, detects a stimulus in the environment. These receptors are specialized nerve endings that convert the stimulus into electrical signals, also known as nerve impulses.
  2. Afferent Nerves (Receptor): The afferent nerves, also known as sensory nerves, receive the nerve impulses generated by the sensory receptors. These nerves transmit the sensory information from the receptor to the central nervous system (CNS), which can be the spinal cord or the brain. The afferent nerves serve as the pathway for the sensory signals to reach the CNS.
  3. Relay Nerves: Once the sensory impulses reach the CNS, they are relayed to specific areas within the CNS for processing and interpretation. Relay nerves, also known as interneurons or association neurons, play a role in transmitting and integrating the sensory information within the CNS. They facilitate communication between the afferent and efferent nerves.
  4. Motor Neurons: The relayed information is then passed on to motor neurons, which are efferent nerves responsible for transmitting signals from the CNS to the effector organs, such as muscles or glands. Motor neurons carry the instructions from the CNS to initiate the appropriate motor response.
  5. Efferent Nerves (Effector): The efferent nerves, also known as motor nerves, receive the signals from the motor neurons and transmit them to the effector organs. The effector organs, such as muscles, respond to the signals by contracting or relaxing, leading to the execution of the reflex action.

It is important to note that in reflex actions, the involvement of the CNS may vary. Simple reflexes, such as the withdrawal reflex, may be mediated solely by the spinal cord, while more complex reflexes may involve the integration and processing of sensory information in the brain.

The action of neurons in a reflex action allows for the rapid and automatic response to stimuli without conscious thought or decision-making. Neurons serve as the communication channels within the nervous system, transmitting signals and coordinating the various components involved in reflex actions.

Examples of reflex action

Reflex actions are involuntary and automatic responses that occur in the body without conscious effort or thought. They play a crucial role in protecting and maintaining the body’s functioning. Here are some examples of reflex actions:

  1. Salivation Reflex: When we see or smell tasty food, our salivary glands are stimulated to secrete saliva. This reflex prepares the body for digestion by moistening the food and aiding in the initial stages of the digestive process.
  2. Pupillary Reflex: When a finger or any object is brought close to the eye, the pupil quickly constricts in response to the bright light or close proximity of the object. This reflex helps regulate the amount of light entering the eye, protecting the sensitive retina from excessive light and maintaining optimal vision.
  3. Yawning Reflex: Yawning is a reflex action that involves the contraction of muscles in the thorax and face. It is often triggered by fatigue or drowsiness. Yawning helps increase the intake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide through deep inhalation and exhalation, aiding in maintaining proper gas exchange in the respiratory system.
  4. Sneezing Reflex: Sneezing is a reflex action that occurs when the nasal passages are irritated by foreign particles, such as dust, pollen, or allergens. The reflexive action of sneezing helps expel these irritants from the nasal passages, keeping the respiratory system clear and protecting the airways.
  5. Coughing Reflex: The coughing reflex is another protective mechanism of the respiratory system. It is triggered when irritants or foreign substances enter the respiratory tract. Coughing involves a forceful expulsion of air from the lungs, helping to clear the airways of mucus, dust, or other irritants and preventing them from reaching the lungs.

These examples demonstrate how reflex actions serve to protect and maintain the body’s well-being. They ensure the proper functioning of various systems, such as the digestive system, visual system, and respiratory system, by initiating appropriate responses to specific stimuli. Reflex actions are essential for maintaining homeostasis and safeguarding the body from potential harm or discomfort.

Importance of a Reflex Action

Reflex actions play a crucial role in our daily lives and serve several important functions. Here are some key reasons why reflex actions are important:

  1. Survival and Protection: Reflex actions are essential for our survival and protection. They provide immediate responses to potential threats or dangers in our environment. For example, when we touch a hot object, the reflex action of quickly withdrawing our hand helps prevent further injury.
  2. Rapid Response: Reflex actions are incredibly fast and occur without conscious thought. They bypass the slower cognitive processes of the brain and instead involve automatic neural pathways, allowing for quick responses to stimuli. This rapid response is critical in situations where immediate action is necessary to avoid harm.
  3. Maintaining Homeostasis: Reflex actions help maintain the body’s internal balance and homeostasis. They regulate various physiological processes to ensure optimal functioning. For instance, reflexes control breathing rate, blood pressure, and heart rate to maintain appropriate levels in response to changing conditions.
  4. Postural Control and Balance: Many reflex actions contribute to postural control and balance. Reflexes involving muscles and joints help us maintain an upright posture, adjust our body position to prevent falls, and respond to changes in balance. These reflexes work together to keep us stable and prevent injuries related to balance disturbances.
  5. Protection of Sensory Organs: Reflex actions also serve to protect our sensory organs, such as the eyes, ears, and respiratory system. Reflexes like blinking, sneezing, and coughing help remove foreign particles or irritants from the eyes, nasal passages, and airways, preventing potential damage or infections.
  6. Learning and Adaptation: Reflex actions can also contribute to learning and adaptation. Through repeated exposure to certain stimuli, reflex actions can become more refined and efficient. This process, known as conditioned reflex, allows us to adapt to our environment and improve our responses over time.

In summary, reflex actions are important for our survival, protection, and overall well-being. They provide rapid responses to stimuli, help maintain homeostasis, contribute to postural control and balance, protect our sensory organs, and facilitate learning and adaptation. Without reflex actions, our ability to respond effectively to our surroundings and ensure our safety would be significantly compromised.


What is a reflex action?

A reflex action is an involuntary and automatic response to a specific stimulus, which occurs without conscious thought or control from the brain.

How does a reflex action differ from a voluntary action?

A reflex action is an automatic response that occurs without conscious control, while a voluntary action is a deliberate and conscious movement initiated by the brain.

What is the purpose of reflex actions?

Reflex actions serve as protective mechanisms to help the body respond quickly to potentially harmful or dangerous stimuli, such as withdrawing from pain or blinking to protect the eyes.

How do reflex actions occur?

Reflex actions occur through a reflex arc, which involves the sensory receptors detecting the stimulus, sensory neurons transmitting the signal to the spinal cord or brain, processing of the signal, and motor neurons initiating a response in the form of muscle contraction or relaxation.

What are some examples of reflex actions?

Examples of reflex actions include the knee-jerk reflex, blinking when an object approaches the eye, sneezing in response to nasal irritation, and swallowing when food touches the back of the throat.

Are reflex actions the same in all individuals?

Reflex actions are generally similar across individuals within a species, although variations may exist due to factors such as age, health conditions, and individual differences in neural pathways.

Can reflex actions be modified or learned?

Reflex actions are innate and hardwired responses that do not require conscious learning. However, certain reflexes can be conditioned or modified through repeated stimulation and conditioning techniques.

Do reflex actions involve the brain?

Reflex actions can involve the brain to varying degrees. Some reflex actions are mediated solely by the spinal cord, while others may involve sensory input reaching the brain for processing before initiating a response.

Can reflex actions be suppressed or controlled?

While reflex actions are typically involuntary, conscious control and suppression of reflexes are possible to some extent through conscious effort and training.

Are reflex actions the same in all species?

Different species may exhibit variations in reflex actions based on their anatomical and physiological characteristics. However, the fundamental concept of reflex actions is present in many organisms as a survival mechanism.



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