Spontaneous Generation – Definition, Experiments, Importance

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What is Spontaneous Generation Theory?

  • Spontaneous generation is a historical scientific theory positing that certain living organisms can arise from nonliving matter. This theory was rooted in the observation of phenomena that seemed inexplicable, such as the sudden appearance of maggots on decaying meat or the emergence of mice from rags containing bread and cheese left in a dark corner. Such observations led to the belief that life could spontaneously emerge from non-life without any apparent parental lineage.
  • Central to the spontaneous generation theory is the assertion that life can originate from non-life without any intervening causal agent, such as parental organisms.
  • This concept is distinct from the modern understanding of abiogenesis, which postulates that life on Earth emerged from nonliving matter over an extended period, spanning at least millions of years, during the planet’s early history. Unlike spontaneous generation, the contemporary hypothesis of abiogenesis does not suggest that life continually arises from non-life in the present day.
  • Another related term, “equivocal generation” (sometimes referred to as xenogenesis or heterogenesis), denotes the supposed process wherein one type of life emerges from a different, unrelated form. An example of this is the belief that tapeworms could originate directly from the tissues of their hosts.
  • The decline of the spontaneous generation theory began in earnest following Louis Pasteur’s experiments in 1859, which provided evidence against the spontaneous generation of microorganisms.
  • Around the same time, the term “heterogenesis” was used to describe the emergence of life from previously living organic matter, such as boiled broths. Henry Charlton Bastian, in his work, introduced the term “archebiosis” to describe the origin of life from inorganic substances.
  • Interestingly, while Bastian introduced the term “biogenesis” in 1870 to describe the emergence of life from nonliving matter, this definition was soon overshadowed.
  • Thomas Henry Huxley, an eminent English biologist, proposed the term “abiogenesis” for the same concept and redefined “biogenesis” to describe the process by which life arises from pre-existing life. It is Huxley’s definitions that have since become widely accepted in the scientific community.
  • In summary, the theory of spontaneous generation, once a widely accepted explanation for the emergence of life from non-life, has been supplanted by modern scientific understanding. Today, it serves as a testament to the evolving nature of scientific knowledge and the importance of empirical evidence in shaping our understanding of the natural world.
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Definition of Spontaneous Generation

Spontaneous generation is the historical theory that living organisms can arise directly from nonliving matter.

Spontaneous Generation Theory

The spontaneous generation theory, as delineated by Aristotle in his seminal work “On the Generation of Animals” circa 350 B.C., offers a scientific proposition to elucidate the seemingly abrupt appearance of organisms, such as flies, rats, and maggots, within decomposing substances. This theory posits that these organisms are not progeny of pre-existing organisms or parent entities. Instead, their emergence is contingent upon specific environmental conditions conducive to their creation.

Aristotle introduced the concept of “pneuma,” which he described as a “vital heat” or the essence of life. This term was later translated to “anima” in Latin, signifying “soul.” He postulated that all non-living entities possessed this vital heat due to the inherent presence of the four fundamental elements believed to constitute all life forms: earth, air, fire, and water.

Expanding on this, Aristotle asserted that both fauna and flora could spontaneously originate from the amalgamation of earth and liquid. This belief stemmed from the premise that air, inherently containing the vital heat, is present in water, and water, in turn, is present in earth. Consequently, this implies the omnipresence of the vital heat or soul in all entities.

Aristotle elucidated his stance on spontaneous generation with the following declaration:

“… When air and vital heat are encapsulated within a medium, the inherent bodily fluids undergo a heating process, leading to the formation of a frothy vesicle. The nature and nobility of the ensuing life form are contingent upon the assimilation of the psychical principle. The medium and material in which this generation transpires further influence this assimilation.”

In essence, Aristotle’s spontaneous generation theory provided an early scientific perspective on the origins of life, emphasizing the role of environmental conditions and inherent “vital heat” in the emergence of organisms.

Experiments on Spontaneous Generation Theory


The Greek philosopher Aristotle(384–322 BC) supports the spontaneous generation theory. He thought that life was originated from nonliving materials if the material contained pneuma (“vital heat”).

Redi’s Experiment

Spontaneous Generation Theory
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In 1668, an Italian scientist Francesco Redi conduct an experiment on a piece of fresh meat to disprove the spontaneous theory.

  • Redi placed a piece of fresh meat in tow different jars.
  • He left one jar open and the second one was covered with a cloth.
  • After a few days, he observed that the open jar contained maggots whereas the covered jar contained no maggots.
  • He also noticed that maggots were found on the exterior surface of the cloth, which was used to cover the jar.

From this experiment, Redi proved that maggots came from the fly eggs means spontaneous generation theory was wrong. Because according to this theory living cells were originated from the nonliving cells.

John Needham’s Experiment

Later, An England scientist, John Needham proved Redi’s experiment wrong by placing broth or gravy in a bottle and heated the bottle to kill the indie’s germs, then he sealed it. After a few days, he found life inside the bottle and announced that life is originated from nonliving cells ( In actuality, he did not heat it long enough to kill all the microbes). 

Spallanzani’s Experiment

An Italian scientist, Lazzaro Spallanzani combined both experiments of Needham and Redi and constructed his own experiment.

  • Spallanzani conducted her experiment by placing broth in two different bottles.
  • Then he boiled both broth inside the bottle.
  • Then he sealed on the bottle and left open the second one.
  • After a few days, he observed that the open bottle contains life was as the sealed bottle contain no life.
  • Although his experiment was successful except it was noted by scientists of the day that Spallanzani had deprived the closed bottle of air, and it was thought that air was necessary for spontaneous generation.  a strong rebuttal blunted his claims.

Pasteur’s Experiment

Spontaneous Generation Theory
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The French scientist, Louis Pasteur accept the challenge and conduct his experiment on spontaneous generation.

  • He designed several bottles with S-curved necks or also known as gooseneck flask, which were oriented downward so gravity would prevent access by airborne foreign materials.
  • Then he placed nutrient-enriched broth in one goose-neck bottle.
  • Then he boiled the broth inside the bottle and kept it for one year in sealed condition.
  • After one year he observed no life in the jar.
  • Then he broke the top portion of the goose-neck bottle and directly exposed to the air.
  • After a few days, he observed that the broth has contains life.
  • He noticed that no life forms were observed in the broth until this obstacle was removed from the bottle, because air born particles and dust were trapped in the S-shaped neck of the bottle.
  • He confirmed that the contamination came from life-forms in the air. From this experiment, he disproves the spontaneous generation theory.

John Tyndall

  • In 1876, an English physicist John conduct an experiment to support the Pasteur’s experiment.
  • He designed an apparatus to prove that air carries particulate matter.
  • From his experiment, he proved that pure air is free of microorganisms. When this pure air is introduced into life-supporting media no microorganism was formed.

Biogenesis Definition

  • Biogenesis is referred to as the living cells are originated from the nonliving cells.
  • Ther term biogenesis also refers to biochemical processes of production in living organisms.
  • The biogenesis theory was proved by Louis Pasteur, that living things come only from other living things life does not spontaneously arise from non-living material.
  • An English physiologist and neurologistHenry, Charlton Bastian first coined the term biogenesis.
  • An English biologist and anthropologist Thomas Henry Huxley first coined the term abiogenesis.

The Disproving of Spontaneous Generation Theory

The theory of spontaneous generation, which posited that life could arise spontaneously from non-living matter, was a widely accepted belief for many centuries. However, over time, several scientists conducted experiments that challenged and eventually disproved this theory.

1. Francesco Redi (1626-1697) Francesco Redi, an Italian physician, was the pioneer in challenging the spontaneous generation theory. He conducted an experiment where he placed fresh meat in two jars. One jar was covered with a muslin cloth, while the other was left open. After a few days, maggots appeared in the open jar but not in the covered one. Redi interpreted this as evidence that maggots came from fly eggs and did not spontaneously generate.

2. John Needham (1731-1781) A century later, John Needham, an English naturalist and supporter of spontaneous generation, boiled a broth and poured it into a covered flask. At that time, it was known that boiling could kill “animacules” or microorganisms. However, after some time, the broth was teeming with microorganisms. Needham believed this supported spontaneous generation. Critics argued that he hadn’t boiled the broth long enough, suggesting that the animacules were heat-resistant.

3. Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) Lazzaro Spallanzani, another Italian scientist, replicated Needham’s experiment but with a twist. He sealed the flask before boiling the broth and found no organisms in it afterward. Spallanzani concluded that Needham’s broth had been contaminated after boiling. Needham countered this by claiming that air, with its “vital heat,” was essential for spontaneous generation, and Spallanzani’s method had destroyed this vital heat.

4. Louis Pasteur (1822 – 1895) The final nail in the coffin for the spontaneous generation theory came from Louis Pasteur, a French scientist. In 1859, he designed flasks with S-shaped necks, allowing air to enter but trapping airborne microbes in the curves. After boiling the broth in these flasks, no microbes appeared for months. However, when he removed the flask’s top, the broth was soon filled with microorganisms. Pasteur’s experiment conclusively demonstrated that life arises from microbes present in the air, not through spontaneous generation.

In conclusion, the theory of spontaneous generation was debunked through a series of meticulous experiments by various scientists over the centuries. Their collective efforts paved the way for the modern understanding of the origins of life and the role of microorganisms in our environment.

Examples of Spontaneous Generation

1. Bougonia: The Genesis of Bees: One of the earliest references to spontaneous generation is found in the writings of the Roman poet Virgil. He detailed a peculiar method, termed “Bougonia,” to artificially produce bees. The procedure entailed violently ending a bovine calf’s life, sealing its orifices, and laying the carcass atop a mixture of cinnamon and thyme. Virgil observed that, over time, entities would emerge “initially devoid of appendages, but swiftly fluttering with wings.” This phenomenon likely pertained to maggots metamorphosing into bees.

2. The Mysterious Birth of Mice: A peculiar recipe from antiquity proposed that to generate mice, one should position sweat-soaked undergarments atop a jar filled with wheat husks. After approximately 21 days, mice would purportedly appear. A logical interpretation suggests that the wheat attracted mice, which then found the jar a suitable nesting site, leading to reproduction.

3. Scorpion Creation via Basil and Bricks: Jean Baptiste van Helmont, a renowned European chemist, posited a unique method for producing scorpions. He instructed individuals to chisel a cavity into a brick, fill it with basil, and then cover it with another brick. After exposing this setup to sunlight for several days, he claimed that “the basil’s fumes, acting as a fermenting agent, would metamorphose the plant matter into genuine scorpions.”

4. Additional Instances of Spontaneous Generation:

  • Amphibian Emergence: Post-flood wet terrains were believed to spontaneously give rise to amphibians, notably frogs and toads.
  • Rat Genesis: Decaying refuse littering streets was thought to be the origin of rats.
  • Salamanders from Flames: Salamanders, often found escaping from burning logs, were believed to have been birthed from fire.
  • Oyster Shell Formation: It was hypothesized that oyster shells materialized as the earth solidified around them, with the “vital heat” nurturing the organism within.
  • Crocodiles of Egypt: Egyptian crocodiles were believed to sprout from mud, with sunlight serving as the vital catalyst.

In retrospect, these beliefs underscore the human endeavor to comprehend the mysteries of life’s origins, even if the explanations were rooted in misconceptions.

Spontaneous generation vs. Modern abiogenesis

Historically, the concept of life spontaneously arising from non-living matter was widely accepted. This idea, known as spontaneous generation, posited that complex organisms like mice could suddenly form from stored grain, or maggots could appear in meat without any biological precursor, such as a parent. Essentially, it was believed that living entities could be instantly created from non-living substances within a short timeframe, ranging from minutes to years.

However, this ancient understanding of abiogenesis is vastly different from the modern hypothesis of abiogenesis.

The modern hypothesis of abiogenesis suggests a more gradual and scientifically plausible approach to the origin of life. Instead of complex organisms appearing suddenly, it postulates that primitive life forms emerged from non-living matter over millions of years. These initial life forms were not as intricate as today’s organisms. They were likely based on RNA, given its dual role as both genetic material and a catalyst. Over time, these rudimentary life forms evolved, diversifying and becoming more sophisticated both physically and genetically.

In summary:

  • Spontaneous Generation: Believed that complex organisms, like mice or maggots, could spontaneously arise from non-living matter in a short period (minutes to years).
  • Modern Abiogenesis: Proposes that life originated from non-living matter over millions of years, starting with primitive RNA-based organisms that gradually evolved into more complex forms.

The distinction between these two concepts underscores the evolution of scientific understanding, from ancient beliefs rooted in observation without empirical evidence to modern hypotheses grounded in research and experimentation.

Spontaneous generation vs. Biogenesis

Throughout history, the origin of life has been a topic of great intrigue and debate. Two primary theories emerged: spontaneous generation and biogenesis.

  • Spontaneous Generation: This theory posited that life could spontaneously arise from non-living matter. In the 19th century, Henry Charlton Bastian, a prominent figure in this field, introduced the term “archebiosis” to describe the phenomenon of living organisms forming from non-living matter. He claimed to have observed this process under his microscope. Bastian also introduced the term “biogenesis” as a replacement for spontaneous generation. However, this terminology would soon be redefined.
  • Biogenesis: Thomas Henry Huxley, another influential scientist of the same era, proposed a clear distinction between the two terms. He suggested that “abiogenesis” be used to describe the process of spontaneous generation, while “biogenesis” should refer to the principle that life arises from pre-existing life. In essence, biogenesis asserts that living entities can only originate from other living entities, not from non-living matter.

Huxley’s definitions gained widespread acceptance and became the standard understanding of the terms. Thus, while spontaneous generation or abiogenesis suggests life can emerge from non-life, biogenesis firmly states that life can only come from life.

Equivocal vs. Univocal generation

The concepts of equivocal and univocal generation delve into the origins and production of species, each presenting a distinct perspective on the matter.

  • Equivocal Generation: Also known as heterogenesis or xenogenesis, equivocal generation is a subset of the spontaneous generation theory. It posits that a species can arise from an entirely unrelated species. A classic example of this belief is the notion that a parasitic tapeworm could originate directly from its host, rather than from another tapeworm.
  • Univocal Generation: In stark contrast to equivocal generation, univocal generation asserts that a species is produced from parents of the same species. This concept aligns with the modern understanding of reproduction and heredity, where offspring inherit characteristics from their parents and belong to the same species.

In summary, while equivocal generation suggests the possibility of species arising from entirely different species, univocal generation emphasizes the continuity of species through reproduction from parents of the same kind.


What did the Spontaneous Generation Theory propose?
a) Life can arise from living organisms.
b) Life can arise spontaneously from non-living matter.
c) Life can only arise from similar life forms.
d) Life can arise from water.

Who conducted an experiment with meat in jars to challenge the Spontaneous Generation Theory?
a) Louis Pasteur
b) John Needham
c) Lazzaro Spallanzani
d) Francesco Redi

Which term is synonymous with Spontaneous Generation?
a) Biogenesis
b) Abiogenesis
c) Equivocal generation
d) Univocal generation

Who proposed the term “abiogenesis” to describe the process of spontaneous generation?
a) Henry Charlton Bastian
b) Thomas Henry Huxley
c) Lazzaro Spallanzani
d) John Needham

Which theory opposes the idea of Spontaneous Generation?
a) Equivocal generation
b) Xenogenesis
c) Biogenesis
d) Heterogenesis

Which scientist designed flasks with S-shaped necks to disprove Spontaneous Generation?
a) Francesco Redi
b) John Needham
c) Lazzaro Spallanzani
d) Louis Pasteur

What did people historically believe could spontaneously generate from stored grain?
a) Flies
b) Maggots
c) Mice
d) Worms

Which term refers to the process where a species is produced from unrelated species?
a) Biogenesis
b) Univocal generation
c) Equivocal generation
d) Abiogenesis

Who believed that “vital heat” in the air was necessary for spontaneous generation?
a) Francesco Redi
b) John Needham
c) Lazzaro Spallanzani
d) Louis Pasteur

Which of the following is NOT a synonym for Spontaneous Generation?
a) Abiogenesis
b) Heterogenesis
c) Xenogenesis
d) Biogenesis


1. What is spontaneous generation and who disproved the theory?

The Spontaneous generation theory was referred to as the living cells were originated from nonliving cells. According to this theory, mice came from corn, flies from bovine manure, maggots from rotting meat, and fish from the mud of previously dry lakes.

Francesco Redi, Lazzaro Spallanzani, Louis Pasteur, John Tyndall disproved the theory.

2. Are abiogenesis and spontaneous generation the same?

Yes both the terms are same. An English biologist and anthropologist Thomas Henry Huxley first coined the term abiogenesis.

3. Who proposed the theory of spontaneous generation?

Spontaneous generation theory was first proposed by Aristotle (384–322 BC).

4. What is meant by the idea of spontaneous generation?

Spontaneous generation means, living cells were originated from nonliving materials.

5. What is an example of a spontaneous generation?

Follow Redi’s Experiment.

6. Does spontaneous generation occur?

Yes, spontaneous generation occurs.
Then write Redi’s Experiment

7. Is spontaneous generation true?

Yes, spontaneous generation occur.
Then write Redi’s Experiment

8. Why was spontaneous generation believed for so long?

Write the whole portion of “Experiments on Spontaneous Generation Theory

9. Does meat spontaneously generate flies and maggots?

No. Follow Redi’s Experiment

10. Who disproved spontaneous generation?

Louis Pasteur and John Tyndall in the mid-19th century.

11. How long was spontaneous generation believed true?

Belief in spontaneous generation lasted until the 1860s, when Louis Pasteur’s experiments brought germ theory to the world

12. Why was the theory of spontaneous generation rejected?

Follow John Needham’s Experiment and last point of Spallanzani’s Experiment.

13. What is spontaneous generation history?

Write this whole article.

14. Is spontaneous generation correct or incorrect?

Follow Redi’s experiment.

15. Can living matter come from nonliving matter?


16. What was the variable in Redi’s experiment?

The independent (manipulated) variable was the gauze. follow the article for more detail

17. What was REDI’s initial observation?

His initial observation was living cells were generated from living material.

18. Did Louis Pasteur believe spontaneous generation?


19. What did Redi conclude?

His initial observation was living cells were generated from living material.

20. Did John Needham believe in spontaneous generation?


21. Did Lazzaro Spallanzani believe spontaneous generation?


22. What is the swan neck flask experiment?

Follow Pasteur’s Experiment

23. What was Lazzaro Spallanzani experiment?

Follow the experiment of Lazzaro Spallanzani.

24. When did Lazzaro Spallanzani do his experiment?

In 1773

25. What was Francesco Redi’s hypothesis about the appearance of maggots?

follow the experiment.


  1. https://www.infoplease.com/math-science/biology/genetics-evolution/origin-of-life-spontaneous-generation
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swan_neck_flask
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spontaneous_generation
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biogenesis
  5. https://www.biologyonline.com/dictionary/biogenesis

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