The Widal test is an agglutination test that determines any antibodies present in the patient's serum that are generated against the causal agents of the enteric febrile illness (Salmonella Typhi, and Salmonella paratyphi B, A as well as C).
It is a type of biochemical test which is used to distinguish reducing sugars from non-reducing sugars. This biochemical test is also known as the silver mirror test based on the end product of this test. This test was also used to differentiate between aldehydes and ketones through routine qualitative organic analysis.
The oxidase test is a biochemical reaction that assays for the presence of cytochrome oxidase, an enzyme sometimes called indophenol oxidase. In the presence of an organism that contains the cytochrome oxidase enzyme, the reduced colorless reagent becomes an oxidized colored product .
Counter current immunoelectrophoresis is a modification of immunoelectrophoresis in which antigen and antibody migrate towards opposite directions and form a visible white precipitate in the area between the wells.
The gelatin proteins derived from the animal connective tissue, collagen. Gelatin is produced when collagen is boiled in water. A gelatin hydrolysis test is used to detects the presence of gelatinases. Gelatinases are extracellularly secreted by some bacteria which hydrolyze or digest gelatin.
Northern blotting or Northern hybridization is a widely used technique in molecular biology to determine the molecular weight of mRNA and to measure relative amounts of mRNA present in different samples and for identifying alternatively spliced transcripts and multigene family members.
In molecular biology Western blotting is a rapid and sensitive assay for detection and characterization of proteins. This technique exploits the inherent specificity of antigen-antibody interaction to identify specific antigens by polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies.
The pour Plate Method technique was created in the laboratory by Robert Koch and is still widely used in the laboratory since his time. This technique is appropriate for Microaerophilic, facultative, or anaerobic microorganisms. It is straightforward to use, requires fewer resources, and is simple and cost-effective. However, it requires the specimen to be placed
Spread Plate Method in microbiology The spread plate method is used to isolate individual colonies from a diluted sample of mix population. Different methods have been developed for the isolation of microorganisms from a mixture sample but among them Spread plate culture method is the most widely used technique in laboratory. An ideal spread plate
The term Giemsa stain originated from a name of German chemist and bacteriologist Gustav Giemsa. He apply this stain with a combination of reagents to detect the presence of malaria parasites. This stain is used for nucleic acid staining and histopathological diagnosis of malaria and other parasites. Giemsa Stain is a types of Romanowsky stains
Bacterial cells contain nuclear material, made of single-stranded circular DNA, in contrast to eukaryotes. This genetic material is present within the membrane-bounded structure known as the nucleus. In case of prokaryotes the nuclear material is present within the nucleoid which lacks the nuclear membrane and does not follow the mitosis or miosis cell division. Some
The cell membrane is a biological membrane which also termed a plasma membrane (PM) or cytoplasmic membrane. It divides the interior of the cell from the outside environment, thus protects the cell from environmental stress. The cell membrane is a lipid bilayer, contains cholesterols between phospholipids which maintain their fluidity at various temperatures. The membrane