Counter current immunoelectrophoresis is a modification of immunoelectrophoresis in which antigen and antibody migrate towards opposite directions and form a visible white precipitate in the area between the wells.
In molecular biology Western blotting is a rapid and sensitive assay for detection and characterization of proteins. This technique exploits the inherent specificity of antigen-antibody interaction to identify specific antigens by polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies.
Northern blotting or Northern hybridization is a widely used technique in molecular biology to determine the molecular weight of mRNA and to measure relative amounts of mRNA present in different samples and for identifying alternatively spliced transcripts and multigene family members.
The Widal test is an agglutination test that determines any antibodies present in the patient's serum that are generated against the causal agents of the enteric febrile illness (Salmonella Typhi, and Salmonella paratyphi B, A as well as C).
It is a type of biochemical test which is used to distinguish reducing sugars from non-reducing sugars. This biochemical test is also known as the silver mirror test based on the end product of this test. This test was also used to differentiate between aldehydes and ketones through routine qualitative organic analysis.
The oxidase test is a biochemical reaction that assays for the presence of cytochrome oxidase, an enzyme sometimes called indophenol oxidase. In the presence of an organism that contains the cytochrome oxidase enzyme, the reduced colorless reagent becomes an oxidized colored product .
It is a type of biochemical test, which is used to differentiate Staphylococcus aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococci. S.aureus produces two forms of coagulase (i.e., bound coagulase and free coagulase).
Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis (RIEP) also known as electro-immuno diffusion is a simple, quick and reproducible method for determining the concentration of antigen (Ag) in an unknown sample.
Reverse grouping is defined as using the reagent cells with known ABO antigens and testing the patient’s serum for ABO group antibodies.
The gelatin proteins derived from the animal connective tissue, collagen. Gelatin is produced when collagen is boiled in water. A gelatin hydrolysis test is used to detects the presence of gelatinases. Gelatinases are extracellularly secreted by some bacteria which hydrolyze or digest gelatin.
In this method, the Group B Streptococcus (CAMP test positive) is streaked in the center of sheep blood agar, and Clostridium perfringens is streaked perpendicular to it.
The restriction enzymes cleave the DNA molecule at a specific site or specific nucleotide sequence, is known as recognition sequences or Restriction sites.
Hematoxylin is extracted from a leguminous plant, known as Haematoxylon campechianum, thus it is a natural dye. It forms hematein by oxidation (Ripening).
Production of parasporal crystals is a unique ability (among Bacillus species) of Bacillus thuringiensis. This stain is a means of rapid identification of the species.