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Wave Bioreactor – Principle, Parts, Types, Uses

A Wave Bioreactor (WBR) is a type of bioreactor that uses mechanical waves to agitate and mix the culture media and cells. This is done ...

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Sourav Bio

A Wave Bioreactor (WBR) is a type of bioreactor that uses mechanical waves to agitate and mix the culture media and cells. This is done by generating periodic and oscillatory motions in the bioreactor vessel, which can mimic the natural environment of cells and improve cell growth and productivity.

The importance of the Wave Bioreactor is that it offers several advantages over traditional static or stirred bioreactors, such as improved oxygenation and mass transfer, reduced shear stress on the cells, and enhanced mixing and mixing of the culture media. This can lead to improved cell growth, productivity, and overall performance of the bioprocess.

Additionally, Wave Bioreactors can be used in a variety of applications, such as cell cultivation, protein production, and gene therapy. The technology can also be used to mimic the natural flow of cells in vivo, which can be useful in studying cellular behavior and developing new therapies.

Wave Bioreactors are also used in applications such as algae cultivation, where the technology can be used to increase biomass productivity and improve the quality of the algae. With the increase in demand for sustainable products and biofuels, Wave Bioreactor technology is becoming more important for the development of innovative bioprocesses.

Wave Bioreactor - Principle, Parts, Types, Uses
Wave Bioreactor – Principle, Parts, Types, Uses

Working Principle of Wave Bioreactor

The wave bioreactor is an innovative technique for cultivating cell cultures. The cells are grown in a disposable plastic bag (cellbag) placed on an incubation platform (thermoplate) that rocks at a predetermined frequency and angle. This rocking action facilitates the mixing of the culture fluid within the cellbag and the transmission of oxygen without shear or bubbles.

Working Principle of Wave Bioreactor
Working Principle of Wave Bioreactor

Types of Wave Bioreactor

There are several types of Wave Bioreactors, including:

  1. Magnetic Wave Bioreactor (MWBR): This type of bioreactor uses magnetic fields to generate the mechanical waves that agitate the culture media and cells.
  2. Acoustic Wave Bioreactor (AWBR): This type of bioreactor uses acoustic waves to agitate the culture media and cells, the waves are generated by sound sources such as speakers.
  3. Pulsatile Wave Bioreactor (PWBR): This type of bioreactor uses a cyclical pressure change to generate the mechanical waves.
  4. Hydrodynamic Wave Bioreactor (HWBR): This type of bioreactor uses hydrodynamic forces such as flow or pressure to generate the mechanical waves.
  5. Hybrid Wave Bioreactor: This type of bioreactor combines two or more of the above technologies to create a more efficient and versatile bioreactor.

The choice of the type of wave bioreactor depends on the type of application, culture media, and cells. Each type has its own advantages and disadvantages, it is always recommended to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use and safety precautions.

Parts of Wave Bioreactor

The main parts of a Wave Bioreactor can vary depending on the specific type and model, but typically include:

  1. Bioreactor vessel: This is the container that holds the culture media and cells. It is typically made of glass, stainless steel, or plastic, and is designed to be compatible with the specific type of wave bioreactor.
  2. Wave generator: This is the device that generates the mechanical waves that agitate the culture media and cells. The wave generator can be a magnetic coil, ultrasonic transducer, or a pump, depending on the specific type of wave bioreactor.
  3. Oxygenation and aeration system: This system provides oxygen to the cells and maintains the proper level of dissolved oxygen in the culture media.
  4. Temperature control system: This system maintains the proper temperature for the cells to grow.
  5. pH control system: This system maintains the proper pH for the cells to grow.
  6. Control system: This system allows the operator to control and monitor the various parameters of the bioreactor, such as temperature, pH, and oxygen levels.
  7. Sampling port: This allows the operator to take samples of the culture media for analysis without disrupting the growth of cells.
  8. Sterilization system: This system allows the operator to sterilize the bioreactor and its components before and after use, to prevent contamination.

Some wave bioreactors may have additional parts or features, such as a mixing system or a gas-tight sealing, depending on the specific type and model of the bioreactor, and the requirements of the application.

Operating Procedure of Wave Bioreactor

The operating procedure of a wave bioreactor typically includes the following steps:

  1. Assemble the wave bioreactor: This includes attaching all the necessary parts and components to the bioreactor vessel, and making sure that all the connections are secure.
  2. Sterilize the wave bioreactor: This includes sterilizing the bioreactor vessel and all its components, as well as the culture media and cells, to prevent contamination.
  3. Prepare the culture media: The culture media should be prepared according to the specific requirements of the application and cells. It should be added to the bioreactor vessel.
  4. Add the cells: The cells should be added to the culture media in the bioreactor vessel.
  5. Initiate the wave generator: The wave generator is activated to generate the mechanical waves that agitate the culture media and cells.
  6. Monitor and control the parameters: The various parameters of the bioreactor, such as temperature, pH, oxygen levels, and wave intensity, should be continuously monitored and controlled to ensure optimal conditions for the cells to grow.
  7. Take samples: Samples of the culture media can be taken periodically for analysis to monitor the growth of the cells and the progress of the bioprocess.
  8. Harvest the cells: Once the cells have reached the desired level of growth and productivity, the cells can be harvested for downstream applications, such as protein production or cell therapy.
  9. Clean and disassemble the wave bioreactor: After the bioprocess is complete, the wave bioreactor should be disassembled and cleaned thoroughly to remove any remaining culture media and cells, and to prepare for the next use.

It is worth noting that this is a general guideline and the operating procedure may vary depending on the specific type and model of the wave bioreactor, and the requirements of the application. Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use and safety precautions. Additionally, the wave bioreactor should be operated in a controlled environment with appropriate safety measures in place and under the supervision of a trained personnel.

Applications of Wave Bioreactor

Wave bioreactors are used in a wide range of applications in the fields of biotechnology, medicine, and industrial biotechnology. Some common applications include:

  1. Cell cultivation: Wave bioreactors can be used to cultivate a variety of cells, such as stem cells, primary cells, and cell lines, for downstream applications such as cell therapy, drug discovery, and tissue engineering.
  2. Protein production: Wave bioreactors can be used to produce large amounts of recombinant proteins for therapeutic and industrial applications.
  3. Gene therapy: Wave bioreactors can be used to transfect cells with therapeutic genes, and to produce large amounts of viral vectors for gene therapy applications.
  4. Tissue engineering: Wave bioreactors can be used to grow 3D tissue constructs, such as liver and heart tissue, for applications in regenerative medicine.
  5. Algae cultivation: Wave bioreactors can be used to grow algae for applications in biofuel and bioproducts production.
  6. Bioprocess development: Wave bioreactors can be used to study and optimize the growth of cells and microorganisms for the production of chemicals and biofuels.
  7. Cell behavior and physiology: Wave bioreactors can be used to study the behavior of cells under different flow conditions, which can help in the development of new therapies for diseases such as cancer and heart disease.

Wave bioreactors offer a lot of advantages in comparison to traditional static or stirred bioreactors, such as improved oxygenation and mass transfer, reduced shear stress on the cells, and enhanced mixing and mixing of the culture media. This can lead to improved cell growth, productivity, and overall performance of the bioprocess. Additionally, wave bioreactors can mimic the natural flow of cells in vivo, which can be useful in studying cellular behavior and developing new therapies. With the increase in demand for sustainable products and biofuels, wave bioreactor technology is becoming more important for the development of innovative bioprocesses.

Advantages of Wave Bioreactor

Wave bioreactors offer several advantages over traditional static or stirred bioreactors, including:

  1. Improved oxygenation and mass transfer: The mechanical waves in wave bioreactors can improve the oxygenation and mass transfer of the culture media, leading to improved cell growth and productivity.
  2. Reduced shear stress on the cells: The gentle agitation provided by the waves in wave bioreactors can reduce shear stress on the cells, which can be beneficial for delicate or sensitive cells.
  3. Enhanced mixing and mixing of the culture media: The mechanical waves in wave bioreactors can improve the mixing of the culture media, which can lead to more uniform conditions for the cells and improved cell growth.
  4. Mimic the natural flow of cells in vivo: The mechanical waves in wave bioreactors can mimic the natural flow of cells in vivo, which can be useful in studying cellular behavior and developing new therapies.
  5. Scalability: Wave bioreactors can be scaled up or down to meet the demands of different applications, from small-scale research to large-scale industrial production.
  6. Cost-effective: Wave bioreactors can be cost-effective, especially in the long term, since the improved oxygenation and mass transfer can lead to higher cell productivity, and less energy consumption.
  7. Flexibility: Wave bioreactors can be used in a wide range of applications, such as cell cultivation, protein production, and gene therapy, and can be adapted to different types of cells and culture media.
  8. Reduced risk of contamination: Wave bioreactors reduce the risk of contamination, as the mechanical waves can break up clumps and keep the cells suspended in the culture media.

Disadvantages of Wave Bioreactor

Wave bioreactors have several disadvantages, including:

  1. Complexity: Wave bioreactors can be complex to operate and maintain, and require specialized equipment and training.
  2. High cost: Wave bioreactors can be expensive, especially for large-scale industrial applications.
  3. Limited versatility: Wave bioreactors may not be suitable for certain types of samples, such as highly viscous or heat-sensitive samples.
  4. Risk of damage to delicate cells: The mechanical waves in wave bioreactors can be harsh on delicate cells, and may cause damage or death.
  5. Risk of contamination: If not cleaned properly, wave bioreactors can be a source of contamination, which can affect the growth of cells and the productivity of the bioprocess.
  6. Risk of mechanical failure: wave bioreactors have moving parts that can be prone to failure, this can lead to the loss of cells and the need for maintenance.
  7. Limited scalability: Wave bioreactors may not be easily scalable for large scale processing or industrial applications.

It is worth noting that these disadvantages are relative to the specific application and sample type, and that wave bioreactors may still be the most appropriate method for some applications, particularly for homogenizing delicate or small samples, but it is important to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of wave bioreactors against other bioreactor systems before making a decision.

Precautions

When using a wave bioreactor, it is important to take the following precautions to ensure safe and effective operation:

  1. Wear personal protective equipment (PPE): Always wear gloves, safety goggles, and a lab coat to protect yourself from potential exposure to hazardous samples.
  2. Use appropriate samples: Wave bioreactors may not be suitable for samples that are highly viscous, heat-sensitive, or contain large particles.
  3. Keep the bioreactor clean: Always clean the bioreactor thoroughly after use to prevent cross-contamination between samples.
  4. Handle the bioreactor with care: The glass or stainless steel components of the bioreactor can be fragile, so handle it with care to avoid breakage.
  5. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions: Always read and follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use and safety precautions.
  6. Keep the bioreactor in a safe environment: Always keep the bioreactor in a safe environment and follow laboratory safety protocols.
  7. Monitor and control the wave generator: Always monitor and control the wave generator to ensure that the mechanical waves are not too harsh on the cells.
  8. Monitor the temperature and pH: Always monitor the temperature and pH of the culture media to ensure that the cells are growing under optimal conditions.
  9. Monitor the oxygenation: Always monitor the oxygenation of the culture media to ensure that the cells are getting enough oxygen to grow.
  10. Monitor the growth of cells: Always monitor the growth of the cells and take samples periodically for analysis to ensure that the cells are growing and developing properly.
  11. Have a back up plan: Always have a backup plan in case of an equipment failure or other unexpected event, such as power loss or contamination.
  12. Use appropriate washing and sterilization procedures: Always use appropriate washing and sterilization procedures to ensure that the bioreactor and its components are free of contaminants before and after use.
  13. Train the personnel: Always train the personnel on the proper use and maintenance of the wave bioreactor to ensure safe and efficient operation.

It is important to keep in mind that these precautions are general guidelines, and that specific precautions may vary depending on the type and model of the wave bioreactor, as well as the requirements of the application. Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use and safety precautions, and consult with a trained professional if necessary.

References

  • Slivac, Igor & Srček, Višnja & Radošević, Kristina & Kmetič, Ivana & Kniewald, Zlatko. (2006). Aujeszky’s disease virus production in disposable bioreactor. Journal of biosciences. 31. 363-8. 10.1007/BF02704109.
  • https://www.coleparmer.in/i/wave-bioreactor-system-2-110-220-vac-switchable/6120000
  • https://www.selectscience.net/products/wave-bioreactor-systems/?prodID=86581#:~:text=and%2020%2F50-,The%20WAVE%20Bioreactor%20system%20is%20a%20cell%20culture%20device%20suitable,as%20the%20Cellbag%E2%84%A2%20bioreactor.

Citation

APA

Sourav Bio. (January 14, 2023).Wave Bioreactor – Principle, Parts, Types, Uses. Retrieved from https://microbiologynote.com/wave-bioreactor-principle-parts-types-uses/

MLA

Sourav Bio. "Wave Bioreactor – Principle, Parts, Types, Uses." Microbiology Note, Microbiologynote.com, January 14, 2023.

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