nDNA's full name is nuclear deoxyribose nucleic acid or nuclear deoxyribose nucleic acid. The nDNA is located in the cell's nucleus. It is also known as the genome and contains a substantial amount of the nucleic acid in the cell. DNA helps to express, transmit, and store biological data. All nuclear DNA is located on 23 chromosomal pairs. It comprises a total of 23,000 genes known to encode various proteins. A vast population of non-coding nuclear DNA regulates gene expression.
mtDNA is also referred to as mitochondrial DNA or mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid. Mitochondrial DNA is tiny, circular or linear, non-nuclear, and membrane-bounded DNA found in mitochondria, the powerhouse of a cell. The mitochondrial genome is comprised of a small number of genes and regulatory and synthesis proteins. It possesses its own synthesis machinery and is able to create its own DNA as well as protein. Human mtDNA contains essential genes that, when altered, result in severe defects. mtDNA is also known as cytoplasmic DNA and organelle DNA, both of which are alternate names.
cpDNA is also known as chloroplast deoxyribose nucleic acid or chloroplast DNA. DNA from chloroplasts is present in plants and other creatures with chloroplasts. cpDNA is non-nuclear, circular or linear, and membrane-bound DNA, similar to mtDNA. The chloroplast genome contains a few genes and synthesis machinery. It can synthesis its own DNA, as well as encode a few proteins, and is also known as cytoplasmic DNA or organelle DNA.
pDNA's full name is plasmid DNA. Plasmid DNA or pDNA is circular DNA found in the cytoplasm of bacteria. The plasmid has its own genome, independent of the bacterial chromosome, and carries critical genes, such as antibiotic-resistant genes, that aid in the survival of bacteria. Each plasmid in the cytoplasm of a bacterium has a particular purpose, hence a bacterium contains several plasmids. F-plasmid, col-plasmid, v-plasmid, d-plasmid, and r-plasmid are typical bacterial plasmids. Intriguingly, the plasmid can be altered and employed in genetic engineering research including gene transfer.
rDNA's full name is recombinant DNA. In genetic engineering, rRNA or recombinant DNA refers to DNA that has been produced artificially by connecting two distinct DNA, gene segments, or nucleotide sequences. Recombinant DNA is utilised for manufacturing recombinant proteins, modifying gene function, restoring gene function, inducing artificial mutagenesis, and examining sequence variations. Therefore, it can be utilised in plant research, GMO studies, gene therapy, and other areas of genetic engineering.
cfDNA is also known as cell-free DNA or cell-free foetal DNA. cfDNA is a word utilised in the study of prenatal genetics. cfDNA testing is a non-invasive technique, although it is less effective. In this procedure, instead of testing amniotic fluid for genetic abnormalities, the foetal DNA is directly examined. Studies indicate that foetal DNA circulates in the mother's blood to some level. This DNA was obtained and tested by scientists. The amount of cfDNA extracted is really low.
eDNA's full term is environmental DNA. eDNA or environmental DNA is the DNA acquired from any environmental sample and utilised for DNA testing. The eDNA could be shredded mitochondrial or nuclear DNA from any organism in the environment. Sources of eDNA include faeces, urine, hair, skin fragments, water (pond, sea, or river), soil, and other natural materials. eDNA is employed in identification, metabarcoding, metagenomic analysis, and phylogenetics.
rcDNA's full name is relaxed circular DNA. rcDNA is a variant of a normal form of DNA seen in viruses such as HBV (Hepatitis B virus). It is partially double-stranded circular DNA with an incomplete positive strand and a complete negative strand. These forms aid in the viral DNA's stabilisation, conversion to cccDNA, and replication.
cccDNA is also known as covalently closed circular DNA. cccDNA is end-to-end covalently closed double-stranded DNA. The 5' end of one strand is tied to the 3' end of another strand, and the 3' end of another strand is tied to the 5' end of a third strand. It contains no gaps or discontinuities. It is a transient type of DNA that occurs during an intermediate replication step in certain viruses, such as HBV. cccDNA is not supercoiled.
ctDNA's full name is circulating tumour DNA. Circulating tumour DNA consists of DNA fragments that circulate in the circulation. This DNA is liberated from cancer or tumour cells and floats freely in the circulation. ctDNA is an important cancer marker that aids in the study of cancer.