The DNA code carries the instructions necessary to synthesise the proteins and chemicals vital to our growth, development, and health.
DNA contains the information for creating proteins (as explained by the central dogma). The sequence of A, C, G, and T bases in DNA determines our unique genetic code and provides instructions for the production of chemicals throughout the body.
The DNA code is read by the cell in groups of three nucleotides. Each triplet of bases, also known as a codon, determines which amino acid will be added next throughout the process of protein synthesis.
There are twenty distinct amino acids, which serve as proteins' building components. Various proteins are composed of various combinations of amino acids. This provides them with their own 3D structure and function within the body.
Only 61 of the 64 codons are used to indicate which of the 20 amino acids will be added next. There are three codons that do not correspond to a particular amino acid. These codons indicate the end of the protein and prevent the addition of amino acids to the protein's terminus.
Keratin, the protein in your hair, and haemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying molecule in your blood, are examples of proteins.
Although protein synthesis is a fundamental function of the genome, less than 2% of the human genome has the necessary instructions.
The remainder of the genome, known as non-coding DNA, serves a number of purposes. These include regulating the timing of protein synthesis and DNA packaging within the cell.
– However, there is still much we have to learn about the function of non-coding DNA.