In order to alter a genome, scientists can utilise a variety of methods, including: To use a modified microorganism to transfer foreign DNA into a plant's genome, a process known as "Agrobacterium-mediated" genetic alteration is employed. Gene targeting refers to a method for inserting new DNA into specific parts of a genome via homologous recombination. The term "genome editing" refers to a process in which specific sections of a genome are altered by means of enzymes engineered to cut out only certain strands of DNA.
GMOs are generally made for medical, environmental, or commercial reasons.
The gene that ordinarily causes white GM mushrooms to turn brown has been changed. The browning process in these mushrooms is slower, allowing them to be stored for longer. It has become possible to create genetically modified bacteria by inserting the gene for insulin into their DNA. The growth of these bacteria results in the production of insulin, which is then collected and used by diabetics to regulate their blood sugar levels. Psoriasis and other skin disorders may be related to mutations in the Acer1 gene. Acer1-deficient GM mice have been created so that its normal functions can be investigated. These rodents lose their hair and have impaired thermoregulation.