Gene expression is the transformation of our DNA's instructions into a functional output, such as a protein.
Gene expression is the process by which the information stored in our DNA is converted into instructions for producing proteins and other molecules.
The closely regulated process of gene expression enables a cell to respond to a changing environment.
It functions as both an on/off switch to control when proteins are created and also a volume control that increases or reduces the amount of proteins made.
Transcription and translation are two crucial steps in the protein synthesis process.
When the DNA of a gene is copied to generate RNA, this is transcription. The transcript known as messenger RNA (mRNA).
What is Transcription?
This is accomplished by an enzyme known as RNA polymerase, which utilises available nucleotides from the nucleus of the cell to produce mRNA.
RNA is a molecule with comparable structure and properties to DNA, but it contains just a single strand of nucleotides and, in place of thymine (T), uracil (U).
After messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the transcribed'message' from the DNA to the protein-making factories in the cell, called ribosomes, translation occurs.
What is Translation?
The message carried by mRNA is read by transfer RNA, a carrier molecule. The mRNA is read three letters at a time (a codon).
Each codon indicates a certain amino acid For instance, the three bases GGU represent the amino acid glycine.
Due to the fact that there are only 20 amino acids but 64 possible codon combinations, multiple codons can code for the same amino acid. For example, the codons GGU and GGC both represent the amino acid glycine.
Each amino acid is connected to its own unique tRNA molecule.
When the mRNA sequence is read, each tRNA molecule transports its associated amino acid to the ribosome and temporarily attaches to the appropriate codon on the mRNA molecule.
Once the tRNA is bound, it releases its amino acid and the adjacent amino acids form a polypeptide, which is a long chain.
This procedure is repeated until a protein is produced. Proteins perform the majority of a cell's active functions.