What is RNA sequencing?

RNA sequencing is a way to figure out the order of the bases that make up a single RNA molecule.

Most of the cells in an organism have the same genome, but there are a lot of differences in how they look and what they do.

Different types of cells turn on or off different sets of genes, which leads to the wide range of structures and functions we see. We use RNA sequencing to look into these differences between cells in the same organism.

Using a method called RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), which determines the sequence of the bases making up a molecule of RNA, we can figure out which genes are switched on and to what extent they are switched on.

Understanding which genes contribute to novel changes between cell types and tissues is facilitated by RNA sequencing.

Bone marrow cells make red blood cells, hence they include haemoglobin RNA. Skin cells don't need to generate haemoglobin, hence they lack haemoglobin RNA.

RNA sequencing can distinguish between healthy and diseased cells.

Bone marrow cells express haemoglobin RNA. Beta thalassemia-mutated bone marrow cells express substantially less haemoglobin RNA.

What is the process of RNA sequencing?

First, RNA molecules are extracted from the investigated cells. Single-stranded RNA is more easily damaged and destroyed than double-stranded DNA.

This sort of DNA is called complementary DNA (cDNA), and it's created using reverse transcriptase.

Once cDNA is generated, it can be sequenced like DNA.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows for large-scale DNA sequencing at lower prices than microarrays.

Where does RNA sequencing take us and what do we learn from it?

The majority of genes' purposes remain a mystery. Investigating where and when a gene is turned on or off can shed light on its possible function.

By comparing healthy and diseased gene expression patterns, we can find disease-related genes. These genes may cause the disease; further research can lead to gene editing.

Splicing cuts and rearranges mRNA before it's used to make a protein. RNA sequencing helps us examine how mRNA can be rearranged.