The 'Central Dogma' describes the transformation of DNA's instructions into a functional product. In 1958, Francis Crick, the discoverer of the structure of DNA, first proposed it.

The core dogma of molecular biology describes the transmission of genetic information from DNA to RNA in order to produce a functioning protein.

According to the fundamental dogma, DNA holds the instructions necessary to produce all of our proteins, and RNA is a messenger that conveys this information to the ribosomes.

In the cell's ribosomes, information is "translated" from a code to a functional product.

Gene expression is the process through which DNA instructions are translated into a functioning product.

The two key phases of gene expression are transcription and translation. During transcription, each cell's DNA information is transformed into tiny, transportable RNA messages.

During translation, these messages travel from the DNA in the nucleus of the cell to the ribosomes, where they are'read' in order to produce specific proteins.

According to the central dogma, the most common pattern of information in our cells is: from existing DNA to make new DNA. From DNA, RNA is synthesized. RNA to produce new proteins

In the case of retroviruses such as HIV, reverse transcription is the transfer of information from RNA into new DNA. It is the process of assembling genetic information from RNA into new DNA.

Modern study reveals that certain components of the basic doctrine are not completely correct. Current investigation focuses on determining the role of non-coding RNA.

Even if this does not adhere to the basic dogma, it nonetheless serves a purpose in the cell.