Which best describes a difference between transcription and DNA replication?
Transcription and DNA replication are two different processes that occur in cells. Both processes involve the synthesis of nucleic acids, but they have some key differences:
- Template: In DNA replication, the template for synthesis is the double-stranded DNA molecule itself. In transcription, the template is a single strand of DNA, and the product is a single-stranded RNA molecule.
- Enzymes: DNA replication is carried out by a group of enzymes known as DNA polymerases, while transcription is carried out by an enzyme called RNA polymerase.
- Substrates: DNA replication uses deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) as substrate, while transcription uses ribonucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) as substrate.
- Location: DNA replication occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and throughout the cell in prokaryotic cells. Transcription occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and in the cytosol of prokaryotic cells.
- Product: The product of DNA replication is two identical copies of the original DNA molecule, while the product of transcription is an RNA molecule that is complementary to one of the strands of the original DNA molecule.
- Function: DNA replication is necessary for the faithful transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next, while transcription is the first step in the process of gene expression, which converts the genetic information encoded in DNA into functional products, such as proteins.