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Development Stages of frog – Pre-embryonic, embryonic and post-embryonic development

Stages in the development of frog - Pre-embryonic, Embryonic and Post-embryonic Development

The development of frogs follows a typical sequence of events observed in sexually reproducing organisms. It begins with the fertilization of an egg or zygote. The zygote then undergoes a series of divisions, dividing and re-dividing to form an embryo. The embryo is the earliest stage of development and remains within the egg or reproductive … Read more

Chemogeny or Chemical Evolution of Life

Chemogeny or Chemical Evolution of Life

What is Chemogeny? 1. Origin of Earth’s Primitive Atmosphere 2. Formation of Simple Inorganic Molecules (Water, Ammonia and Methane) The formation of simple inorganic molecules, such as water, ammonia, and methane, played a significant role in the chemical evolution of the primitive Earth. During the early stages, when the surface temperature of the Earth was less … Read more

Stem cell culture – Definition, Types, Application, Preparation

Stem cell culture - Definition, Types, Application, Preparation

What is Stem cell? Classification of Stem Cells Stem cells can be classified into different categories based on their origin, potency, and differentiation potential. Here are the main classifications of stem cells: It’s important to note that the classification of stem cells is not always rigid, as there can be overlap and ongoing research to … Read more

In Vitro Fertilization – Definition, Principle, Procedure, Applications

In Vitro Fertilization - Definition, Principle, Procedure, Applications

What is In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)? Why IVF is done? IVF is performed for various reasons related to infertility and certain health conditions. Here are some common reasons why IVF may be done: Additionally, for individuals who do not have a functional uterus or face significant health risks during pregnancy, IVF with a gestational carrier … Read more

Amniocentesis (Amniotic Fluid Test) – Principle, Procedure, Result

Amniocentesis (Amniotic Fluid Test) - Principle, Procedure, Result

What is Amniocentesis? (Amniotic Fluid Test) Sample for Amniotic fluid Examination (Amniocentesis) The purpose of the test Amniocentesis, the examination of amniotic fluid, serves various purposes in prenatal diagnosis and assessment. The test provides valuable information about the fetus, allowing healthcare providers to make informed decisions regarding the health and well-being of both the mother … Read more

Teratogenesis – Definition, Factors, Mechanism

Teratogenesis - Definition, Factors, Mechanism

What is Teratogenesis? Teratogenic Agents 1. Infectious agents 2. Physical agents 3. Chemical agents Chemical agents, including certain medications and substances, can have teratogenic effects on the developing fetus. These agents can disrupt normal development and contribute to the occurrence of birth defects. Here are some key points about different chemical agents and their teratogenic … Read more

Ageing – Definition, Theories, and models

Ageing - Definition, Theories, and models

What is Ageing? Different Types of Aging Aging is a complex process that can be categorized into different types based on various perspectives. Understanding these different types of aging can provide a comprehensive view of the aging process. Here are five common classifications: Overall, aging is a multifaceted process that encompasses various dimensions. By considering … Read more

Regeneration – Definition, Types, Mechanism, Examples

Regeneration - Definition, Types, Mechanism

What is Regeneration? Definition of Regeneration Regeneration is the natural process by which organisms restore, repair, or replace lost or damaged body parts through the growth and differentiation of specialized cells, often known as stem cells. Types of Regeneration Regeneration, a pivotal biological process, can be classified into distinct types based on the underlying mechanisms … Read more

Metamorphosis – Definition, Types, Mechanism, Importance, Examples

Metamorphosis - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Importance, Examples

What is Metamorphosis? Metamorphosis is a biological process characterized by a profound transformation in the form, structure, or physiology of an organism as it progresses through distinct stages of its life cycle. It involves significant changes that are often irreversible and result in the emergence of a new developmental stage or life form. Stages of … Read more

Placenta – Definition, Structure, Types, Functions

Placenta - Definition, Structure, Types, Functions

What is Placenta? Definition of Placenta The placenta is a temporary organ that develops during pregnancy and connects the developing baby to the mother’s uterus. It provides oxygen, nutrients, and eliminates waste products from the baby’s blood. Types of Placenta There are several types of placenta, characterized by different factors and arrangements. Here are the … Read more

Implantation of embryo in Humans – Definition, Process

Implantation of embryo in Humans - Definition, Process

What is Implantation? Time of Implantation Site of Implantation Implantation stages Implantation is a complex process that involves a series of stages in the embryonic development of mammals. These stages are crucial for the successful attachment and invasion of the blastocyst into the uterine wall. The five recognized stages of implantation are migration and hatching, … Read more

Extra-embryonic Membranes in Chick – Definition, Types, Development, Functions

Extra-embryonic Membranes in Chick - Definition, Types, Development, Functions

What is Extra-embryonic Membranes? Types of Extra-Embryonic Membranes During chick development, four types of extra-embryonic membranes are formed: Each of these extra-embryonic membranes is composed of two germ layers. The amnion and chorion consist of the extra-embryonic ectoderm and the somatic layer of mesoderm, collectively known as the somatopleure. On the other hand, the yolk … Read more

Embryonic Induction And Organizers

Embryonic Induction And Organizers

What is Embryonic Induction? Historical Background of Embryonic Induction The historical background of embryonic induction is marked by the pioneering work of Hans Spemann, a German embryologist, and his student Hilde Mangold in the 1920s. Their extensive research on newt species, specifically Triturus cristatus and Triturus taeniatus, led to the discovery of neural induction. In … Read more

Stages in Chick Embryo Development

Stages in Chick Embryo Development

The development of a chick embryo from a freshly laid hen’s egg involves various stages and intricate processes. Let’s explore the initial stages of chick embryo development based on the provided information: The hen’s egg, when laid, is relatively large, measuring about 3cm in diameter and 5cm in length. It is considered a macrolecithal egg … Read more

Fertilization – Changes in Gametes, Monospermy and Polyspermy

Fertilization - Changes in Gametes, Monospermy and Polyspermy

Special features of the gametes for fertilization Both gametes, the sperm and the egg, possess special features that enable successful fertilization. Egg: Sperm: Advertisements In summary, the egg and the sperm possess specialized features that are essential for fertilization. The egg has protective coverings, recognition mechanisms, and cortical granules to prevent polyspermy and ensure compatibility … Read more

Cleavage – Definition, Types, Planes, Patterns, Significance

Cleavage - Definition, Types, Planes, Patterns, Significance

What is cleavage? Characteristics of cleavage Cleavage exhibits several distinct characteristics during the early stages of embryo development: Overall, cleavage is characterized by the rapid division of the fertilized egg, resulting in the generation of numerous blastomeres. These divisions lead to the formation of either a solid mass of cells (morula) or a hollow sphere … Read more

Types of Eggs and Egg Membranes

Eggs are fascinating structures found in various organisms across the animal kingdom. They serve as the starting point for new life, harboring the potential for development and growth. However, not all eggs are created equal. Different species exhibit diverse types of eggs, varying in size, shape, and the presence of yolk. Moreover, eggs are surrounded … Read more

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