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Anatomy Books

What is Anatomy?

Anatomy is a branch of biology that tries to figure out how the bodies of different living things are put together by taking them apart.

The word anatomy comes from the Greek word “anatom,” where “ana” means “up” and “tome” means “cutting.” Anatomy got its name because it used to be taught by cutting up dead bodies.

Types of Anatomy

Anatomy could be classified into:

  • Human Anatomy – Human anatomy is the study of how the human body is put together. It looks at the circulatory, digestive, endocrine, skeletal, lymphatic, nervous, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, and muscular systems.
  • Plant Anatomy – This is also known as the phytotomy. It is the study of how a plant works on the inside, including its tissues, roots, stem, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds.
  • Animal Anatomy – Zootomy is another name for animal anatomy. It looks at the cells, tissues, organs, bones, and other parts of an animal’s body that make up its internal structure.

As was said above, dissection was the main way people learned about anatomy. In Greek and Latin, the words “Anatomy” and “dissection” mean almost the same thing. Not only do the words “anatomy” and “dissection” come from the same root, but anatomy is a very broad field, and the word “dissection” is no longer used.

On the other hand, physiology is mostly about how the body works and how it works. It is very different from anatomy, which is all about the way an organism is put together.

Anatomy is classified into:

  1. Microscopic Anatomy (Histology)
  2. Gross Anatomy (Macroscopic anatomy).

Microscopic Anatomy (Histology)

Also called “histology.” The study of cells and tissues as seen through a microscope is known as microscopic anatomy. Histologists are the people who are experts in this field of study. In this process, cells and tissues are marked and cut into sections that can be looked at under a microscope. The biological samples are cut into thin slices so they can be looked at more closely. Stains are put on these samples that have been cut up to make them easier to see and to draw attention to important structures. You can use microscopic anatomy to look at and compare the structures of different types of organisms and the different stages of the cell cycle.

Application of Histology

  • Frequently, histology slides are used to illustrate the microscopic structures of biological cells and tissues.
  • Tissue analysis can disclose vital information regarding any underlying illness or disease.
  • It is incredibly useful during postmortems since it can pinpoint the exact cause of death.
  • Utilizable in palaeontology, particularly for identifying fossils.
  • Utilized for the diagnosis of specific cancer cells and biopsies.
  • Utilizable in different areas of biological science.

Gross Anatomy

Also called large-scale anatomy. Gross anatomy is the study of parts of an organism that can be seen with the naked eye. The main goal of gross anatomy is to learn everything there is to know about how an organism is put together.

Application of Gross Anatomy:

  • Gross anatomy is used to learn more about each organ in depth.
  • In endoscopy, a tube with a camera at the end is put into the body cavity of a living thing.
  • It is used in Angiography, a procedure in which a clear dye is injected into the blood vessels to see how blood moves through the body.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-rays are used to study the organs and structures inside of living things.

 

Antimicrobial Drugs

Antimicrobials are substances that kill or stop the growth of microorganisms.

  • Antimicrobial drugs can be put into groups based on the microorganisms they work best against.
  • Antibiotics, for example, are used to kill bacteria, and antifungals are used to kill fungi.
  • They can also be put into groups based on what they do. Agents that kill microbes are microbicides, while those that merely inhibit their growth are called bacteriostatic agents.
  • Antimicrobial chemotherapy is the use of antimicrobial medicines to treat infections, while antimicrobial prophylaxis is the use of antimicrobial medicines to prevent infections.
  • The three main types of antimicrobial agents are disinfectants (non-selective agents like bleach), which kill a wide range of microbes on non-living surfaces to stop the spread of illness, antiseptics (which are used on living tissue to reduce infection during surgery), and antibiotics (which destroy microorganisms within the body).
  • The word “antibiotic” used to only refer to medicines made from living microorganisms, but it is now also used to describe man-made medicines like sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones.
  • Used to only refer to antibacterials, the term is now used to mean all antimicrobials. It is often used as a synonym for antibacterials by medical professionals and in medical literature.
  • Antibacterial agents can be further broken down into bactericidal agents, which kill bacteria, and bacteriostatic agents, which slow or stop the growth of bacteria.
  • In response, more progress in antimicrobial technologies has led to solutions that can do more than just stop the growth of microbes. Instead, porous media have been made that kill microbes as soon as they touch them.

Bacteriology

Bacteriology is a branch of biology that looks at the shape, size, environment, genes, and biochemistry of bacteria, among many other things.

  • In this part of microbiology, scientists try to find, classify, and describe different kinds of bacteria.
  • Because thinking about and working with protozoa, fungi, and viruses is a lot like thinking about and working with bacteria, the field of bacteriology has tended to become known as microbiology.
  • People used to use both terms interchangeably. But bacteriology can be thought of as a separate science.
  • Bacteriology looks at bacteria and how they are used in medicine. Bacteriology grew out of the need for doctors to use the germ theory to test their concerns about food and wine going bad in the 1800s.
  • Pathogenic bacteriology has made progress because people have found and studied the bacteria that cause diseases.
  • Koch’s ideas helped people figure out the links between certain bacteria and certain diseases.
  • Since then, bacteriology has made a lot of progress, such as with vaccines like diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid that work well.
  • There have also been vaccines like the one for typhoid that didn’t work as well and had side effects. Antibiotics were also found by studying bacteria.
  • A bacteriologist is a microbiologist or someone who has been trained in the study of bacteria.
  • A bacteriologist’s main job is to help prevent, diagnose, and predict diseases.
  • In addition to health care, they may do things like epidemiological surveillance, quality auditing with biotechnology development, basic research, career-related management and teaching, scientist management, lab coordination, and blood banks.

 

Basic Microbiology

Microbiology is the branch of science that studies tiny living things and how they interact with other tiny and big living things.

Microorganisms are very small organisms that can only be seen through a microscope because they are too small to see with the naked eye. Microorganisms are things like bacteria, fungi, archaea, protozoa, and viruses that are very small.
Basic microscopy is a wide range of studies that help researchers learn about the biochemistry, physiology, cell biology, ecology, evolution, and clinical aspects of microorganisms, as well as how the host reacts to these agents.
Microbiology also looks at the structure, function, and classification of these organisms, as well as how they can be used and how their actions can be controlled.
Anton von Leeuwenhoek’s invention of the microscope led to the start of the field of microbiology.
On the one hand, microbes are used because they have special properties that make it possible to make antibiotics, amino acids, hormones, and other therapeutic compounds. They are also used to make food and products that go with food.
Microorganisms also help break down things like lignocellulosic biomass, which is used to make second-generation ethanol or biogas.
In the same way, microorganisms are dangerous for both industry (food spoilage) and human health because of their genes and biochemistry.
At first, microbiology was only connected to pathogenic microorganisms, which cause different kinds of diseases in different groups of living things.
Since microbiology became a field of study, there have been more ways to use microorganisms in different areas.
Because microorganisms are used in food and medicine, the field of microbiology has grown into other fields and studies.
So, over time, the field has been divided into more groups, such as agriculture microbiology, food microbiology, pharmaceutical microbiology, systemic microbiology, etc.
Microorganisms are used in a lot of different research projects because they are easy to control and reproduce compared to other living things. This has also led to more research in microbiology.
Studies in microbiology are important for finding new and more advanced ways to find new microorganisms and the diseases and applications they cause.
Microbiology also looks at ways to find, classify, and study microorganisms, as well as how they live and die.
All of this helps us learn more about microorganisms and how they keep the ecosystem running.
Through a process called genetic recombination, microbiology and microorganisms can be used to make new microorganisms that have been genetically engineered.
Aside from that, different microorganisms are used to make food, industrial products, and antibiotics.

BHU Answer Key

Free download Answer key of BHU PET applied Microbiology

Biochemical Test

  • Biochemical tests are the kinds of tests that are done on different bacteria to figure out what kind of bacteria they are based on how they react to different biochemical compounds.
  • Biochemical tests, which are usually done with phenotypic identification, are one of the traditional ways to figure out what kind of microorganism it is.
  • These methods were widely used for a long time, and they are still used today, especially in some lab procedures where a certain type of microorganism needs to be identified quickly.
  • Several biochemical tests are based on the ability of microorganisms to use certain biomolecules to make organic compounds that they can use.
  • There are different kinds of biochemical tests, and different ways to tell the difference between different microorganisms.
  • One of the older methods is to look for an increase in turbidity in the liquid medium. This shows that the organism is growing and getting the nutrients it needs.
  • In other tests, on the other hand, the results are based on how the colour of the medium changes as its pH changes.
  • Microorganisms can be put into different groups based on how they respond to these kinds of tests. Some tests can even tell the difference between different species of microorganisms.
  • Because of this, biochemical tests are important because they are cheap and easy to do.
  • The way bacteria and other microorganisms work is different from one another, which makes it possible to tell them apart.
  • Biochemical tests, on the other hand, have some flaws. Even though these methods are cheap and can give both quantitative and qualitative information about the variety of microorganisms in a sample, they are difficult to use and take a long time to see results.
  • Sometimes, false positives are found, especially when similar microbial species are being tested.

What is the purpose of biochemical test?

Biochemical tests are used to tell the difference between different types of bacteria based on how they behave in the biochemical world.

What are examples of biochemical tests?

  • Catalase Test.
  • Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA)
  • Blood Agar Plates (BAP)
  • Streak-stab technique.
  • Taxos P (optochin sensitivity testing)
  • Taxos A (bacitracin sensitivity testing)
  • CAMP Test.
  • Bile Esculin Agar.

Biochemistry

Biochemistry is the branch of science that studies how chemicals work in living things and how they affect each other.

  • It is a science that brings together biology and chemistry and is done in a lab.
  • Biochemists can understand and solve biological problems by using their knowledge and skills in chemistry.
  • Biochemistry is the study of how things work at the molecular level. It looks at things like proteins, lipids, and organelles to find out what’s going on inside our cells.
  • It also looks at how cells talk to each other, such as during growth or when the body is trying to fight off an illness.
  • Biochemists need to know how the structure of a molecule affects how it works. This lets them predict how molecules will interact with each other.
  • Biochemistry is a branch of science that includes genetics, microbiology, forensics, plant science, and medicine, among other things. Biochemistry is a very important field of science because of how wide it is. In the last 100 years, there have been amazing changes in this field of science. This interesting field of study is going through a very exciting time.

What Types of Molecules Do Biochemists Study?

These are the main kinds of biological molecules, also called biomolecules:

  • Carbohydrates
  • lipids
  • proteins
  • nucleic acids

Many of these molecules are polymers, which are made up of simple molecules called monomers. Most molecules in living things are made of carbon.

What Is Biochemistry Used For?

  • Biochemistry is a way to learn about how cells and organisms work.
  • Biochemistry can be used in a number of ways to learn about the properties of biological molecules. For example, a biochemist might study how the keratin in hair works so that a shampoo that makes hair curlier or softer can be made.
  • Biochemists figure out how biomolecules can be used. A biochemist, for instance, might add a certain lipid to food.
  • A biochemist could also find a different biomolecule to use instead of the usual one. Biochemists, for example, help come up with artificial sweeteners.
  • Biochemists are able to help cells make new things. Biochemistry is the field that covers gene therapy. Biochemistry is the study of how living things make their own tools.

What do biochemists do?

  • Give new ideas and experiments to help people figure out how life works.
  • Help us learn more about health and illness
  • Help the technology revolution by giving new information.
  • Work with chemists, physicists, doctors, nurses, policymakers, engineers, and many other professionals. 

Biochemists work in many places, including:

  • Hospitals
  • Universities
  • Agriculture
  • Food institutes
  • Education
  • Cosmetics
  • Forensic crime research
  • Drug discovery and development

Biochemists have many transferable skills, including:

  • Analytical
  • Communication
  • Research
  • Problem solving
  • Numerical
  • Written
  • Observational
  • Planning

Biochemistry Books

Biochemistry is the branch of science that studies how chemicals work in living things and how they affect each other. It is a science that brings together biology and chemistry and is done in a lab. Biochemists can understand and solve biological problems by using their knowledge and skills in chemistry.

Biochemistry is the study of how things work at the molecular level. It looks at things like proteins, lipids, and organelles to find out what’s going on inside our cells. It also looks at how cells talk to each other, such as during growth or when the body is trying to fight off an illness. Biochemists need to know how the structure of a molecule affects how it works. This lets them predict how molecules will interact with each other.

Biochemistry is a branch of science that includes genetics, microbiology, forensics, plant science, and medicine, among other things. Biochemistry is a very important field of science because of how wide it is. In the last 100 years, there have been amazing changes in this field of science. This interesting field of study is going through a very exciting time.

What Types of Molecules Do Biochemists Study?

These are the main kinds of biological molecules, also called biomolecules:

  • Carbohydrates
  • lipids
  • proteins
  • nucleic acids

Many of these molecules are polymers, which are made up of simple molecules called monomers. Most molecules in living things are made of carbon.

What Is Biochemistry Used For?

  • Biochemistry is a way to learn about how cells and organisms work.
  • Biochemistry can be used in a number of ways to learn about the properties of biological molecules. For example, a biochemist might study how the keratin in hair works so that a shampoo that makes hair curlier or softer can be made.
  • Biochemists figure out how biomolecules can be used. A biochemist, for instance, might add a certain lipid to food.
  • A biochemist could also find a different biomolecule to use instead of the usual one. Biochemists, for example, help come up with artificial sweeteners.
  • Biochemists are able to help cells make new things. Biochemistry is the field that covers gene therapy. Biochemistry is the study of how living things make their own tools.

 

What do biochemists do?

  • Give new ideas and experiments to help people figure out how life works.
  • Help us learn more about health and illness
  • Help the technology revolution by giving new information.
  • Work with chemists, physicists, doctors, nurses, policymakers, engineers, and many other professionals. 

Biochemists work in many places, including:

  • Hospitals
  • Universities
  • Agriculture
  • Food institutes
  • Education
  • Cosmetics
  • Forensic crime research
  • Drug discovery and development

Biochemists have many transferable skills, including:

  • Analytical
  • Communication
  • Research
  • Problem solving
  • Numerical
  • Written
  • Observational
  • Planning

 

Biochemistry MCQ

Biochemistry is the branch of science that studies how chemicals work in living things and how they affect each other. It is a science that brings together biology and chemistry and is done in a lab. Biochemists can understand and solve biological problems by using their knowledge and skills in chemistry.

Biochemistry is the study of how things work at the molecular level. It looks at things like proteins, lipids, and organelles to find out what’s going on inside our cells. It also looks at how cells talk to each other, such as during growth or when the body is trying to fight off an illness. Biochemists need to know how the structure of a molecule affects how it works. This lets them predict how molecules will interact with each other.

Biochemistry is a branch of science that includes genetics, microbiology, forensics, plant science, and medicine, among other things. Biochemistry is a very important field of science because of how wide it is. In the last 100 years, there have been amazing changes in this field of science. This interesting field of study is going through a very exciting time.

What Types of Molecules Do Biochemists Study?

These are the main kinds of biological molecules, also called biomolecules:

  • Carbohydrates
  • lipids
  • proteins
  • nucleic acids

Many of these molecules are polymers, which are made up of simple molecules called monomers. Most molecules in living things are made of carbon.

What Is Biochemistry Used For?

  • Biochemistry is a way to learn about how cells and organisms work.
  • Biochemistry can be used in a number of ways to learn about the properties of biological molecules. For example, a biochemist might study how the keratin in hair works so that a shampoo that makes hair curlier or softer can be made.
  • Biochemists figure out how biomolecules can be used. A biochemist, for instance, might add a certain lipid to food.
  • A biochemist could also find a different biomolecule to use instead of the usual one. Biochemists, for example, help come up with artificial sweeteners.
  • Biochemists are able to help cells make new things. Biochemistry is the field that covers gene therapy. Biochemistry is the study of how living things make their own tools.

What do biochemists do?

  • Give new ideas and experiments to help people figure out how life works.
  • Help us learn more about health and illness
  • Help the technology revolution by giving new information.
  • Work with chemists, physicists, doctors, nurses, policymakers, engineers, and many other professionals. 

Biochemists work in many places, including:

  • Hospitals
  • Universities
  • Agriculture
  • Food institutes
  • Education
  • Cosmetics
  • Forensic crime research
  • Drug discovery and development

Biochemists have many transferable skills, including:

  • Analytical
  • Communication
  • Research
  • Problem solving
  • Numerical
  • Written
  • Observational
  • Planning

Biography

A biography, or “bio,” is a detailed account of the life of a person. It shows more than just the basic facts of a person’s life, like where they went to school, what they did for a living, who they loved, and how they died. Unlike a profile or a curriculum vitae (resume), a biography tells the story of a person’s life. It focuses on different parts of their life, including personal details, and may include an analysis of the person’s personality.

Biographies are usually nonfiction, but you can also use fiction to tell the story of a person’s life. Legacy writing is a type of biography that goes into more depth. Biography is a genre that includes works in many different forms, from books to movies.

An authorised biography is written with the subject’s or subject’s family’s permission, cooperation, and sometimes participation. Autobiographies are written by the person who is being written about, sometimes with the help of a co-author or ghostwriter.

A microbiologist, whose name comes from the Greek for “small life,” is a scientist who studies microscopic life and how it works. This includes studying the growth, interactions, and traits of tiny organisms like bacteria, algae, fungi, and some types of parasites and the organisms that carry them. Most microbiologists work in offices or labs, either for private biotech companies or for universities. Most microbiologists focus on one area of the field, like bacteriology, parasitology, virology, or immunology.

Most of the time, microbiologists work in some way to improve scientific knowledge or to use that knowledge to make medicine or some industry better. For many microbiologists, this means planning and carrying out experiments in a lab setting. Others may be in charge of managing scientists and figuring out how good their work is. Microbiologists who work in the medical field, like clinical microbiologists, may look at patients or samples from patients and run different tests to find organisms that cause disease.

For academic microbiologists, their jobs include doing research in a university lab, writing grant proposals to get money for research, and teaching and designing courses. Microbiologists who work in industry may have similar responsibilities, but their research is done in industrial labs to create or improve products and processes used in business. Some jobs in the industry also involve sales and marketing and making sure that rules are followed. Microbiologists who work for the government might do things like research in the lab, writing, giving advice, making and reviewing rules, and keeping an eye on grants given to institutions outside of the government. Some microbiologists work in patent law, either for national patent offices or for private law firms. Her job includes researching intellectual property laws and figuring out how to follow them. Clinical microbiologists usually work in labs run by the government or hospitals. Their job is to look at clinical samples to find the microorganisms that cause disease. Some microbiologists instead work in the field of science outreach, where they create programmes and materials to teach students and people who aren’t scientists about microbiology and get them interested in the field.

Biology

Biology is the scientific study of life. It is a natural science with a broad scope but has several unifying themes that tie it together as a single, coherent field. For instance, all organisms are made up of cells that process hereditary information encoded in genes, which can be transmitted to future generations. Another major theme is evolution, which explains the unity and diversity of life. Energy processing is also important to life as it allows organisms to move, grow, and reproduce. Finally, all organisms are able to regulate their own internal environments.

Biologists are able to study life at multiple levels of organization. From the molecular biology of a cell to the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals, and evolution of populations. Hence, there are multiple subdisciplines within biology, each defined by the nature of their research questions and the tools that they use. Like other scientists, biologists use the scientific method to make observations, pose questions, generate hypotheses, perform experiments, and form conclusions about the world around them.

Life on Earth, which emerged more than 3.7 billion years ago, is immensely diverse. Biologists have sought to study and classify the various forms of life, from prokaryotic organisms such as archaea and bacteria to eukaryotic organisms such as protists, fungi, plants, and animals. These various organisms contribute to the biodiversity of an ecosystem, where they play specialized roles in the cycling of nutrients and energy through their biophysical environment.

Biosafety

Biosafety is the prevention of large-scale loss of biological integrity, focusing both on ecology and human health. These prevention mechanisms include conduction of regular reviews of the biosafety in laboratory settings, as well as strict guidelines to follow. Biosafety is used to protect from harmful incidents. Many laboratories handling biohazards employ an ongoing risk management assessment and enforcement process for biosafety. Failures to follow such protocols can lead to increased risk of exposure to biohazards or pathogens. Human error and poor technique contribute to unnecessary exposure and compromise the best safeguards set into place for protection.

The international Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety deals primarily with the agricultural definition but many advocacy groups seek to expand it to include post-genetic threats: new molecules, artificial life forms, and even robots which may compete directly in the natural food chain.

Biosafety in agriculture, chemistry, medicine, exobiology and beyond will likely require the application of the precautionary principle, and a new definition focused on the biological nature of the threatened organism rather than the nature of the threat.

When biological warfare or new, currently hypothetical, threats (i.e., robots, new artificial bacteria) are considered, biosafety precautions are generally not sufficient. The new field of biosecurity addresses these complex threats.

Biosafety level refers to the stringency of biocontainment precautions deemed necessary by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for laboratory work with infectious materials.

Typically, institutions that experiment with or create potentially harmful biological material will have a committee or board of supervisors that is in charge of the institution’s biosafety. They create and monitor the biosafety standards that must be met by labs in order to prevent the accidental release of potentially destructive biological material. (note that in the US, several groups are involved, and efforts are being made to improve processes for government run labs, but there is no unifying regulatory authority for all labs.

Biosafety is related to several fields:

  • In ecology (referring to imported life forms from beyond ecoregion borders),
  • In agriculture (reducing the risk of alien viral or transgenic genes, genetic engineering or prions such as BSE/”MadCow”, reducing the risk of food bacterial contamination)
  • In medicine (referring to organs or tissues from biological origin, or genetic therapy products, virus; levels of lab containment protocols measured as 1, 2, 3, 4 in rising order of danger),
  • In chemistry (i.e., nitrates in water, PCB levels affecting fertility)
  • In exobiology (i.e., NASA’s policy for containing alien microbes that may exist on space samples. See planetary protection and interplanetary contamination), and
  • In synthetic biology (referring to the risks associated with this type of lab practice)

Biotechnology

  • The idea of biotechnology includes a wide range of ways to change living things for human use.
  • This goes back to the domestication of animals and plants, as well as their “improvement” through breeding programmes that use artificial selection and hybridization.
  • Cell and tissue culture technologies and genetic engineering are also used today.
  • The American Chemical Society says that biotechnology is the use of biological organisms, systems, or processes by different industries to learn about the science of life and improve the value of things like drugs, crops, and animals.
  • According to the European Federation of Biotechnology, biotechnology is the use of natural science, organisms, cells, cell parts, and molecular analogues to make products and services.
  • Biotechnology is based on the basic biological sciences, such as molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology, embryology, genetics, and microbiology.
  • In turn, biotechnology gives researchers in the basic biological sciences ways to support and do their own research.
  • Biotechnology is the research and development done in the lab using bioinformatics to explore, extract, exploit, and produce from any living organism and any source of biomass by means of biochemical engineering where high value-added products could be planned (for example, by biosynthesis), forecasted, formulated, developed, manufactured, and marketed for the purpose of sustainable operations (for the return from bottomless initial investments) (for exclusives rights for sales, and prior to this to receive national and international approval from the results on animal experiment and human experiment, especially on the pharmaceutical branch of biotechnology to prevent any undetected side-effects or safety concerns by using the products).
  • Biotechnology is the use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to make products that are meant to make people’s lives better.
  • Bioengineering, on the other hand, is often thought of as a related field that focuses more on higher system approaches (rather than directly changing or using biological materials) to interact with and use living things.
  • Bioengineering is the use of engineering and natural science ideas to work with cells, tissues, and molecules. This could be thought of as using what we know from working with and changing biology to make something that can help plants and animals do their jobs better.
  • In a similar way, biomedical engineering is a field that overlaps with biotechnology and often uses it.
  • This is especially true in some subfields of biomedical or chemical engineering, like tissue engineering, biopharmaceutical engineering, and genetic engineering.

Botany

The word “botany” comes from the word “botanic,” which in turn comes from the Greek word “botane.” A “botanist” is someone who studies “botany.”

Botany is one of the oldest fields of science in the world. At first, Botany included both real plants and things that looked like plants, like algae, lichens, ferns, fungi, and mosses. Later, it was found that bacteria, algae, and fungi are all in a separate kingdom.

History of Botany

The majority of life on Earth comes from plants. They give us food, oxygen, and raw materials for a wide range of industrial and household uses. Because of this, people have been interested in plants since the beginning of time.

Theophrastus, a Greek scholar, was one of the first people to study plants. He is also called the “Father of Botany” because he wrote so much about plants. In his book “Enquiry into Plants,” he put plants into groups based on where they grew, how big they were, what they were used for, and how they grew. The other book, “On the Causes of Plants,” talked about how much it costs to grow plants.

Dioscorides was a Greek doctor who lived from 90 to 140 A.D. and wrote a book called “De Materia Medica” about herbal medicines. This book was an important guide to medicine for more than 1500 years, until the compound microscope was made.

Robert Hooke made the first compound microscope in 1665. This was a big step forward for science in the field of Botany. It helped people learn more about how plants work and how their parts fit together. When chlorophyll was found, it helped people understand how photosynthesis works. Through his experiments on pea plants, Gregor Mendel learned about how plants pass on their genes.

With the help of biotechnology and genetic engineering, scientists now know more about how plants work and have come up with better ways to improve crop yield and crop health.

Botany’s Branches

Botany has a number of different fields:

  • Pathology of plants: It is the study of the organisms and environmental conditions that cause diseases in plants, as well as the ways in which the diseases happen and how to stop them.
  • Ecology of plants: Plant ecology is the study of where plants grow, how the environment affects plants, and how plants and other organisms interact with each other.
  • Palaeobotany: Palaeobotany is the part of botany that studies how plants have changed over time by looking at fossils of plants and figuring out what kind of plants they were.
  • Archaeobotany: It is a part of Botany where scientists look into how plants were used by people in the past. Understanding a plant can also help you figure out what it was used for in the past, such as medicine or spirituality.
  • Forensic Botany: Forensic botany is the use of plants and plant parts, like pollen, seeds, leaves, etc., to look into criminal or non-criminal cases, legal disputes or questions, to find out the cause of death or where a body was before it was found, or to find out where a body was before it was found.

Importance of Botany

Plants are a big part of how people live. They are used in many different parts of our daily lives. Botany is the study of the traits and uses of plants, so it is very important.

How important Botany is can be seen in the following ways:

  • Botany is the study of different kinds of plants, how they are used, and what their characteristics are. It has an impact on science, medicine, and beauty.
  • Botany is the key to making biofuels like biomass and methane gas, which are used as fossil fuel alternatives.
  • Botany is important for economic growth because it studies crops and the best ways to grow them, which helps farmers increase crop yield.
  • The study of plants is also an important part of taking care of the environment. Botanists keep track of all the different kinds of plants on Earth and can tell when the number of plants starts to go down.

Cell Biology

Cell biology is a branch of biology that looks at the cell, the basic unit of life. It talks about all parts of the cell, such as its structure, how it grows and divides (mitosis and meiosis), and the things that cells do, such as breathing and dying. Cell biology is not a separate field of study. Instead, it is closely related to genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry.

The study of cells relies on one of biology’s founding principles—the cell theory—which would not have been conceivable before the microscope was invented. Cell researchers now have access to high-resolution images of even the tiniest cellular structures and organelles thanks to cutting-edge microscopes like the Scanning Electron Microscope and the Transmission Electron Microscope.

What Are Cells?

Cells make up the building blocks of every living thing. The number of cells that make up some organisms can reach the trillions. Eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells are the two main categories of cells. In contrast to prokaryotic cells, which lack a membrane enclosing their nucleus, eukaryotic cells do. In spite of the fact that all living things are made up of cells, the cells themselves vary greatly. Cell size, shape, and the number and kind of organelles they contain are only a few examples of these varying features. Comparing animal cells with bacterial cells with plant cells, for instance, reveals parallels and differences. There are a variety of ways in which cells can multiply. Binary fission, mitosis, and meiosis are only a few examples of these processes. The DNA contained within a cell serves as a blueprint for how the cell is to function.

Careers in Cell Biology

Numerous professions are accessible after completing studies in cell biology. In the scientific community, many cell biologists hold research positions in universities and private companies. Optional alternatives:

  • Cell Culture Specialist
  • Clinical Quality Auditor
  • Clinical Researcher
  • Food & Drug Inspector
  • Industrial Hygienist
  • Medical Doctor
  • Medical Illustrator
  • Medical Writer
  • Pathologist
  • Pharmacologist
  • Physiologist
  • Professor
  • Quality Control Specialist
  • Technical Writer
  • Veterinarian

Why Do Cells Move?

Numerous cellular processes rely on cellular mobility. Cell division, determining cell shape, fending off pathogenic invaders, and repairing damaged tissues are all examples of these processes. Transporting materials into and out of a cell and relocating organelles during cell division both require intracellular mobility.

 

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Culture Media

Culture media or growth media is a liquid or gel support media provided with essential nutrients and growth parameters required for the growth of microorganisms.

Differences

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Disease

“A disease is a condition that makes cells, tissues, and organs work less well than they should.”

People usually think of diseases as health conditions that can be recognised by their signs and symptoms.

Another way to describe the disease is:

“Any dangerous change from an entity’s normal or functional state.”

When a person gets sick, he or she shows a number of symptoms and signs that can range from mild to severe, depending on the illness. So, to figure out what diseases are, you need to study and understand what is normal about an entity. There isn’t always a clear line between diseased and disease-free.

Most of the time, the diseases are caused by more than one thing. When we get sick, we show signs like headaches, coughing, a cold, or feeling weak. “Symptoms” is the word for these signs. Almost all diseases have symptoms that show up right away after someone gets sick. But it depends on how bad the disease is.

Classification of Diseases
Type Explanation Example
Anatomic Classification This type refers to the affected organ or tissue Heart disease
Topographical Classification Further classified into types such as vascular disease, chest disease, gastrointestinal disease, and abdominal diseases. These are then handled by specializations in medicine that follow these topographical classifications An ENT specialist (Ear-Nose-Throat)
A Gastroenterology specialist etc.
Physiological Classification This type includes diseases that affect a process or a function (such as metabolism, digestion or respiration) Diabetes
Pathological Classification This type considers the nature of the disease. For instance, cancer is associated with uncontrolled cell growth, and there are variations or types in the disease. Neoplastic diseases (uncontrolled cell growth that is characteristic of cancer)
Inflammatory diseases (autoimmunity)
Epidemiological Classification This classification refers to the rate of occurrence, distribution and the control of the disease in a population. Epidemic diseases such as the plague and Influenza pandemic of 1918–1919

Types of Diseases

Diseases can be of two types

  1. Infectious diseases
  2. Non-infectious diseases

Infectious Diseases

Communicable diseases are those that can be passed from one person to another. Most of the time, microorganisms called pathogens are to blame (fungi, rickettsia, bacteria, viruses, protozoans, and worms). When a person with an infection pees or poop, pathogens can leave the host and infect a new person (sneezing, coughing etc). Cholera, chickenpox, malaria, and other diseases are some examples.

Non-infectious diseases

Pathogens are what cause these diseases, but age, a lack of nutrients, a person’s gender, and their way of life can also affect the disease. Some examples are high blood pressure, diabetes, and cancer. They don’t spread to other people, and once someone has them, they stay in their body. Alzheimer’s disease, asthma, cataracts, and heart disease are all examples of other diseases that are not caused by germs.

Degenerative Diseases

Most of the time, they are caused by cells breaking down over time, which makes important organs in the body stop working right. Diseases like osteoporosis, which makes bones weaker, are examples of degenerative diseases. This makes it more likely that bones will break.

A neurodegenerative disorder is a condition in which the cells of the central nervous system, such as neurons, break down. Alzheimer’s is a well-known case of this condition. Most degenerative diseases are caused by ageing and wear and tear on the body. Some are caused by the way people live, while others are inherited.

Allergies

An allergic reaction happens when the body becomes overly sensitive to allergens, which are foreign substances. This usually happens when the immune system has an unusual reaction to something that seems harmless. Dust, pollen, animal dander, mites, feathers, latex, and even some foods like nuts and gluten can cause allergies. Peanuts and other nuts can cause severe allergic reactions that can be life-threatening, such as trouble breathing, swollen tissues that block the airways, and anaphylaxis shock.

Other common, less dangerous symptoms include coughing, sneezing, a runny nose, itchy, red eyes, and rashes on the skin. Asthma is a good example of this kind of allergic reaction. Sometimes, allergies can also be caused by bee stings and ant bites. Some allergic reactions can be caused by eating shellfish or taking certain medicines.

Asthma is a long-term disease that mostly affects the bronchi and bronchioles of the lungs. One reason for this is that allergens like pollen and dust are in the air. Some of the signs are trouble breathing, wheezing, and coughing.

Blood Diseases

Plasma, white blood cells, platelets, and red blood cells are all parts of blood. When any of these things go wrong, it can lead to problems with the blood. For example, when a person gets sickle cell disease, red blood cells are killed. The red blood cells change shape to look like a sickle, which is how the disease got its name, and they lose their ability to carry oxygen. Because of this, this disease has symptoms like those of chronic anaemia, such as shortness of breath and feeling tired.

This group also includes diseases like eosinophilic disorders, leukaemia, myeloma (cancer of plasma cells in the bone marrow), Sickle Cell Anemia, Aplastic Anemia, Hemochromatosis, and Von Miller and Disease, which is a problem with how the blood clots.

Symptoms in general include pale skin, swollen lymph nodes, fever, bleeding, bruising, rashes, etc.

Deficiency Diseases

They happen when there aren’t enough hormones, minerals, nutrients, or vitamins in the body. For instance, diabetes happens when the body can’t make or use insulin, goitre is mostly caused by not getting enough iodine, and kwashiorkor is caused by not getting enough protein in the diet. Beriberi is caused by a lack of vitamin B1.

Disease-Causing Agents

List of Diseases
Disease Causative Agent
Plague Pasteurella pestis
Cholera Vibrio comma (Vibrio cholera)
Tetanus Clostridium tetani
Anthrax Bacillus anthracis
Whooping cough Bordetella pertussis
Human papillomavirus infection Human papillomavirus
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Hepatitis Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, Hepatitis E viruses
Chickenpox Varicella-zoster virus (VZV)
Meningoencephalitis Naegleria fowleri (amoeba)

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Environmental Microbiology

Microbial ecology, also called environmental microbiology, is the study of the relationships between microorganisms and their surroundings. It has to do with viruses and the three main types of life: Eukaryota, Archaea, and Bacteria.

  • Microorganisms affect the whole biosphere because they are everywhere.
  • Biogeochemical systems are controlled by microbial life in almost all of the places on Earth.
  • This includes some of the most extreme places, like frozen environments and acidic lakes, as well as some of the most common places, like the human small intestine.
  • Due to the fact that there are about 5.01030 cells of microbial life, which is eight orders of magnitude more than the number of stars in the universe that can be seen, microbes are a significant carbon sink just because of their biomass.
  • Aside from carbon fixation, the global biogeochemical cycle is controlled by the metabolic processes of microorganisms, such as nitrogen fixation, methane metabolism, and sulphur metabolism.
  • The amount of work done by microorganisms is so big that even if there were no eukaryotic life, these processes would probably still happen the same way.

Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the spread (who, when, and where), patterns, and causes of health and disease in a defined population.

It is one of the most important parts of public health. It helps shape policy decisions and evidence-based practise by figuring out what causes diseases and who needs preventive care. Epidemiologists help design studies, collect data, and analyse it statistically. They also help change how the results are interpreted and get the word out (including peer review and occasional systematic review). Epidemiology has helped develop methods used in clinical research, public health studies, and, to a lesser extent, basic research in the biological sciences.

Disease causation, disease transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, environmental epidemiology, forensic epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, biomonitoring, and comparing the effects of treatments, like in clinical trials, are some of the most important things that epidemiologists study. Epidemiologists use other scientific fields like biology to learn more about how diseases work, statistics to make good use of the data and come to the right conclusions, social sciences to learn more about close and far causes, and engineering to figure out how much exposure a person has had.

Epidemiology means “the study of what is on the people.” It comes from the Greek words epi, which means “on,” demos, which means “people,” and logos, which means “study, word, discourse,” which suggests that it only applies to human populations. But the word is often used to talk about studies of animal populations (called “veterinary epidemiology”); the term “epizoology” is also used, and it has been used to talk about studies of plant populations as well (botanical or plant disease epidemiology).

Hippocrates was the first person to tell the difference between diseases that “visit” a population (epidemics) and those that “live within” a population (endemics) (endemic). Epidemiology seems to have been used for the first time to talk about the study of epidemics in 1802 by the Spanish doctor Villalba in his book Epidemiologa Espaola. Epidemiologists also study what happens when two or more diseases spread through a population at the same time. This is called a syndemic.

Epidemiology is now used to describe and figure out what causes not only epidemic and infectious diseases, but also diseases in general and conditions that are related to them. Epidemiology looks at things like high blood pressure, mental illness, and obesity, among other things. So, this type of epidemiology is based on how the pattern of the disease changes how people work.

Food Microbiology

Food microbiology refers to a branch in microbiology that studies the role of microorganisms in food spoilage, food manufacturing, and food transmission.

Food safety is an important aspect of food microbiology because food can still transmit various infectious agents. Many people have become concerned about the sporilage of food microorganisms. Foods are a source of nutrients for microorganisms. Food microbiology is not just about the detection of food spoilage, but also the preservation of food against these microorganisms. Preservation techniques such as radiation, dry heat sterilization and filtration are all used in food microbiology. Multiple studies have demonstrated the potential of microorganisms being used to produce new foods. This is evident in the use of Lactobacillus for the production of butter, curd, and cheese. Food microbiology is closely linked to other disciplines, such as biotechnology and basic mikrobiology. This allows the use of genetic mutations for the production of high-protein foods for sick and immuno-compromised people.
Probiotics are becoming more popular all around the globe as these beneficial microorganisms provide instant energy and protein. Due to advances in food microbiology, other immune booster foods also have a large market.
Food microbiology has been shown to improve harvest and prevent plant diseases. There are many different microbiologically-produced polymers, such as alginate, that could be used in the production of new forms.
Food microbiology and clinical medicine are interconnected, increasing the scope of diagnosis. Pasteurization of milk is another example of food microbiology that has been used since antiquity to prevent food-related illnesses.

Genetics

Genetics is a branch of biology that looks at genes, genetic variation, and how traits are passed down from one generation to the next.

Even though people have known about inheritance for thousands of years, Gregor Mendel, a Moravian scientist and Augustinian friar who worked in Brno in the 1800s, was the first to study genetics in a scientific way. Mendel studied “trait inheritance,” which is the pattern of how traits are passed from parents to children over time. He saw that organisms, like pea plants, pass on traits through “units of inheritance.” This word is still used today, even though it doesn’t really explain what a gene is.

In the 21st century, the main ideas of genetics are still trait inheritance and how genes pass on traits at the molecular level. However, modern genetics has moved beyond studying inheritance to study how genes work and behave. Gene structure, function, variation, and distribution are all studied in terms of the cell, the organism (for example, dominance), and a population. There are many subfields of genetics, such as molecular genetics, epigenetics, and population genetics. Organisms from all parts of life are studied in this broad field (archaea, bacteria, and eukarya).

The environment and experiences of an organism work with genetic processes to affect its development and behaviour. This is often called “nature versus nurture.” Gene transcription can be turned on or off in a living cell or organism by the environment inside or outside the cell. Two seeds of genetically identical corn, one planted in a temperate climate and the other in a dry climate, are a classic example (lacking sufficient waterfall or rain). Even though the two corn stalks may have the same average height based on their genes, the one in the arid climate only grows to half the height of the one in the temperate climate because it doesn’t get as much water or nutrients.

Hematology

Hematology is the study of blood and blood disorders.

Human Anatomy

What is Anatomy?

Anatomy is a branch of biology that tries to figure out how the bodies of different living things are put together by taking them apart.

The word anatomy comes from the Greek word “anatom,” where “ana” means “up” and “tome” means “cutting.” Anatomy got its name because it used to be taught by cutting up dead bodies.

Types of Anatomy

Anatomy could be classified into:

  • Human Anatomy – Human anatomy is the study of how the human body is put together. It looks at the circulatory, digestive, endocrine, skeletal, lymphatic, nervous, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, and muscular systems.
  • Plant Anatomy – This is also known as the phytotomy. It is the study of how a plant works on the inside, including its tissues, roots, stem, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds.
  • Animal Anatomy – Zootomy is another name for animal anatomy. It looks at the cells, tissues, organs, bones, and other parts of an animal’s body that make up its internal structure.

As was said above, dissection was the main way people learned about anatomy. In Greek and Latin, the words “Anatomy” and “dissection” mean almost the same thing. Not only do the words “anatomy” and “dissection” come from the same root, but anatomy is a very broad field, and the word “dissection” is no longer used.

On the other hand, physiology is mostly about how the body works and how it works. It is very different from anatomy, which is all about the way an organism is put together.

Anatomy is classified into:

  1. Microscopic Anatomy (Histology)
  2. Gross Anatomy (Macroscopic anatomy).

Microscopic Anatomy (Histology)

Also called “histology.” The study of cells and tissues as seen through a microscope is known as microscopic anatomy. Histologists are the people who are experts in this field of study. In this process, cells and tissues are marked and cut into sections that can be looked at under a microscope. The biological samples are cut into thin slices so they can be looked at more closely. Stains are put on these samples that have been cut up to make them easier to see and to draw attention to important structures. You can use microscopic anatomy to look at and compare the structures of different types of organisms and the different stages of the cell cycle.

Application of Histology

  • Frequently, histology slides are used to illustrate the microscopic structures of biological cells and tissues.
  • Tissue analysis can disclose vital information regarding any underlying illness or disease.
  • It is incredibly useful during postmortems since it can pinpoint the exact cause of death.
  • Utilizable in palaeontology, particularly for identifying fossils.
  • Utilized for the diagnosis of specific cancer cells and biopsies.
  • Utilizable in different areas of biological science.

Gross Anatomy

Also called large-scale anatomy. Gross anatomy is the study of parts of an organism that can be seen with the naked eye. The main goal of gross anatomy is to learn everything there is to know about how an organism is put together.

Application of Gross Anatomy:

  • Gross anatomy is used to learn more about each organ in depth.
  • In endoscopy, a tube with a camera at the end is put into the body cavity of a living thing.
  • It is used in Angiography, a procedure in which a clear dye is injected into the blood vessels to see how blood moves through the body.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-rays are used to study the organs and structures inside of living things.

 

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Immunology

What is immunology?

Immunology is the study of the immune system. It is a very important part of the medical and biological sciences. Several lines of defence in the immune system keep us from getting sick. When the immune system doesn’t work right, it can cause diseases like autoimmunity, allergies, and cancer. It’s also becoming clear that immune responses play a role in the development of many common diseases that haven’t traditionally been thought of as immune-related, such as metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s.

Why is immunology important?

From Edward Jenner’s early work in the 18th century, which led to modern vaccination (which has probably saved more lives than any other medical advance), to the many scientific breakthroughs in the 19th and 20th centuries, which led to, among other things, safe organ transplantation, the identification of blood groups, and the widespread use of monoclonal antibodies in science and healthcare, immunology has made a lot of important contributions to science and medicine. Immunological research continues to help us learn more about how to treat serious health problems. For example, researchers are still looking into immunotherapy, autoimmune diseases, and vaccines for new pathogens like Ebola. Improving our understanding of basic immunology is important for clinical and business use, and it has helped us find new ways to diagnose and treat a wide range of diseases. In addition to these things, immunological research has led to the development of very important research tools and techniques, such as flow cytometry and antibody technology, which have been made possible by advances in technology.

What is an immunologist?

A scientist or doctor who specialises in immunology is called an immunologist. Many immunologists do research in a lab, either for a university or a private company (e.g. in the pharmaceutical industry). Other immunologists, called “clinical immunologists,” are doctors who focus on diagnosing and treating immune system diseases like allergies and autoimmune diseases.

Industrial microbiology

Industrial microbiology is a branch of biotechnology that uses the science of microorganisms to make large amounts of industrial products, often by using microbial cell factories. There are many ways to change a microorganism so that it makes more of what you want it to make. Mutations can be made in an organism by putting it in contact with mutagens. Gene amplification is another way to make more things. This is done with the help of plasmids and vectors. The plasmids and/or vectors are used to add multiple copies of a certain gene. This makes it possible to make more enzymes, which leads to a higher product yield. Using organisms to make a certain product has many uses in the real world, such as making antibiotics, vitamins, enzymes, amino acids, solvents, alcohol, and other everyday items. Microorganisms are very important to the business world, and there are many ways to use them. Microbes can be used in medicine to make antibiotics, which are used to treat infections. Microorganisms can also be used in the food business. Some mass-produced goods that people use are made with the help of microbes, which are very useful. Microorganisms are also used in the chemical industry to make amino acids and organic solvents. Microbes can also be used in agriculture as a biopesticide instead of using dangerous chemicals or inoculants to help plants grow.

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Medical

Medical microbiology is a branch of medicine that focuses on preventing, diagnosing, and treating infectious diseases.

  • It is a large part of microbiology that is used in medicine. This field of science also looks at how microbes can be used in the clinic to make people healthier.
  • There are four types of microorganisms that can cause disease: bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses.
  • There is also a type of infectious protein called prion that can also cause disease.
  • A medical microbiologist studies what makes pathogens what they are, how they spread, how they infect, and how they grow.
  • In order to work as a clinical or medical microbiologist in a hospital or medical research centre, you usually need a master’s degree in microbiology and a Ph.D. in one of the life sciences (Biochem, Micro, Biotech, Genetics, etc.).
  • Medical microbiologists often work as consultants for doctors, helping them find pathogens and give advice on how to treat them.
  • With this info, a treatment plan can be made. Other jobs may include finding possible health risks to the community, keeping an eye on how potentially dangerous or resistant strains of microbes change over time, educating the community, and helping to design health practises.
  • They may also help stop epidemics and disease outbreaks or get them under control.
  • Not all medical microbiologists study microbial pathology. Some study common, non-pathogenic species to see if their properties can be used to make antibiotics or other treatments.
  • Epidemiology is the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease in populations. It is an important part of medical microbiology, even though the clinical side of the field focuses mostly on the presence and growth of microbial infections in individuals, how they affect the body, and how to treat those infections.
  • In this way, the field as a whole, which is an applied science, can be divided into academic and clinical sub-specialties.
  • However, there is a fluid continuum between public health microbiology and clinical microbiology, just as the state of the art in clinical laboratories depends on constant improvements in academic medicine and research laboratories.

Medical Microbiology

Medical microbiology, the large subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. In addition, this field of science studies various clinical applications of microbes for the improvement of health. There are four kinds of microorganisms that cause infectious disease: bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, and one type of infectious protein called prion.

A medical microbiologist studies the characteristics of pathogens, their modes of transmission, mechanisms of infection and growth. The academic qualification as a clinical/Medical Microbiologist in a hospital or medical research centre generally requires a Masters in Microbiology along with Ph.D. in any of the life-sciences (Biochem, Micro, Biotech, Genetics, etc.).[1] Medical microbiologists often serve as consultants for physicians, providing identification of pathogens and suggesting treatment options. Using this information, a treatment can be devised. Other tasks may include the identification of potential health risks to the community or monitoring the evolution of potentially virulent or resistant strains of microbes, educating the community and assisting in the design of health practices. They may also assist in preventing or controlling epidemics and outbreaks of disease. Not all medical microbiologists study microbial pathology; some study common, non-pathogenic species to determine whether their properties can be used to develop antibiotics or other treatment methods.

Epidemiology, the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in populations, is an important part of medical microbiology, although the clinical aspect of the field primarily focuses on the presence and growth of microbial infections in individuals, their effects on the human body, and the methods of treating those infections. In this respect the entire field, as an applied science, can be conceptually subdivided into academic and clinical sub-specialties, although in reality there is a fluid continuum between public health microbiology and clinical microbiology, just as the state of the art in clinical laboratories depends on continual improvements in academic medicine and research laboratories.

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Microscope

Microscope, instrument that produces enlarged images of small objects, allowing the observer an exceedingly close view of minute structures at a scale convenient for examination and analysis.

Molecular biology

Molecular biology concerns the molecular basis of biological activity in and between cells, including molecular synthesis, modification, mechanisms and interactions.

Mycology

Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, traditional medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection.

Parasitology

Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.

Phycology

Phycology is the scientific study of algae. Also known as algology, phycology is a branch of life science.

Algae are important as primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Most algae are eukaryotic, photosynthetic organisms that live in a wet environment. They are distinguished from the higher plants by a lack of true roots, stems or leaves. They do not flower. Many species are single-celled and microscopic (including phytoplankton and other microalgae); many others are multicellular to one degree or another, some of these growing to large size (for example, seaweeds such as kelp and Sargassum).

Phycology includes the study of prokaryotic forms known as blue-green algae or cyanobacteria. A number of microscopic algae also occur as symbionts in lichens.

Phycologists typically focus on either freshwater or ocean algae, and further within those areas, either diatoms or soft algae.

Phycology Book

The branch of science that studies algae is called phycology. It also includes the study of blue-green algae and cyanobacteria, which are two other types of prokaryotic organisms. It’s also called “algology.”

  • Algae are eukaryotic organisms that make their own food through photosynthesis and live in water.
  • They don’t have real roots, leaves, or stems, and they don’t make flowers.
  • Some, like Chlamydomonas, only have one cell, while others, like seaweeds and sargassum, have many cells.
  • Algae has great ecological importance. Plankton are an important link in the food chain. Some algae are used in business to make iodine, alginic acid, agar, potash, and other things.
  • Many people eat a variety of large algae species. Few kinds of plants are used in ponds that clean up sewage.
  • Bricks, filters, and scouring powder, all of which are made from algae, are also used as insulators.
  • In the 19th and 20th centuries, this field became well-known. Phycologists study algae in freshwater or saltwater.
  • The list of articles above will give you more information about the branch.

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Protocols

In this category, you will find protocols for different biological experiments.

Protozoa

Protozoa is a phylum or grouping of phyla which comprises the single-celled microscopic animals, which include amoebas, flagellates, ciliates, sporozoans, and many other forms. They are now usually treated as a number of phyla belonging to the kingdom Protista.

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Virology

Virology is the scientific study of viruses. It focuses on their detection, structure, classification and evolution, their methods of infection and exploitation of host cells for reproduction, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy. Virology is a subfield of microbiology.

The identification of the causative agent of tobacco mosaic disease (TMV) as a novel pathogen by Martinus Beijerinck (1898) is now acknowledged as being the official beginning of the field of virology as a discipline distinct from bacteriology. He realized the source was neither a bacterial nor a fungal infection, but something completely different. Beijerinck used the word ‘virus’ to describe the mysterious agent in his ‘contagium vivum fluidum’ (‘contagious living fluid’). Rosalind Franklin proposed the full structure of the tobacco mosaic virus in 1955.

Virology began when there were no methods for propagating or visualizing viruses or specific laboratory tests for viral infections. The methods for separating viral nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and proteins, which are now the mainstay of virology, did not exist. Now there are many methods for observing the structure and functions of viruses and their component parts. Thousands of different viruses are now known about and virologists often specialize in either the viruses that infect plants, or bacteria and other microorganisms, or animals. Viruses that infect humans are now studied by medical virologists.

Virology is a broad subject covering biology, health, animal welfare, agriculture and ecology. There are many methods used for studying viruses and this article outlines the principal ones and those of historical importance.

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