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G Protein Coupled Receptors – Structure, Functions, and Mechanism

G Protein Coupled Receptors - Structure, Functions, and Mechanism

What are G Protein Coupled Receptors? Structure of G Protein Coupled Receptors Classification of G Protein Coupled Receptors The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily encompasses a vast array of receptors, with at least 831 human genes, approximately 4% of the protein-coding genome, predicted to code for GPCRs. Despite the lack of detectable shared sequence homology … Read more

Photosystem I (PS1) – Structure, Functions

Photosystem I (PS1) - Structure, Functions

What is Photosystem I (PS1)? Definition of Photosystem I (PS1) Photosystem I (PSI) is a crucial protein complex in oxygenic photosynthesis, primarily found in algae, plants, and cyanobacteria. It functions by capturing light energy to drive the transfer of electrons across the thylakoid membrane, from plastocyanin to ferredoxin. This process contributes to the synthesis of … Read more

cGMP Pathway – Definition, Steps, Functions, Regulation

cGMP Pathway – Definition, Steps, Functions, Regulation

The cGMP pathway, short for cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway, is a crucial signaling mechanism in cells. It involves the synthesis of cGMP from GTP (guanosine triphosphate) through the action of the enzyme guanylate cyclase. cGMP acts as a secondary messenger, similar to cyclic AMP (cAMP), and plays a vital role in various physiological processes. One … Read more

Oxidative Phosphorylation – Definition, Steps, Enzymes, Factors

Oxidative Phosphorylation - Definition, Steps, Enzymes, Factors

What is Oxidative Phosphorylation? Definition of Oxidative Phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation is a metabolic process that occurs in the mitochondria, where energy derived from the electron transport chain is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate, with oxygen acting as the final electron acceptor. Sites of oxidative phosphorylation in ETC … Read more

Classification of Lipid

Classification of Lipid

What are lipids? Classification of Lipids Based on the Chemical Composition 1. Simple Lipids Simple lipids are fundamental components in the realm of biological molecules. They primarily consist of neutral fats and oils, as well as waxes. These lipids play crucial roles in various biological processes, especially in energy storage and insulation. 2. Compound Lipids … Read more

Lipids – Definition, Structure, Properties, Types, Functions, Examples

Lipids Definition, Structure, Properties, types, Examples, and Functions

It is common to discuss fat as if it was a villainous substance that is bent to destroy our diets. However, they are beautiful tiny molecules composed of three hydrocarbon tails that are attached to a small coathanger-like molecule known as Glycerol. Similar to the other big organic molecules they perform crucial functions in the biology of both humans and other living things. (Also numerous recent diet studies suggest that sugar can cause many more health issues that fat!)

Four Types of Protein Structure With Diagram – Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary

Four Types of Protein Structure

Proteins, as complex biological molecules, play an essential role in the myriad of processes in living organisms. Consisting of amino acids, proteins can be envisioned as polypeptide structures formed through long chains of these amino acid residues. Therefore, it’s not surprising that they are one of the most abundant organic molecules present in living beings. … Read more

Protein Synthesis Inhibitors – Definition, Mechanism, Examples

Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis (Translation)

What are Protein Synthesis Inhibitors? Types of Protein synthesis inhibitors On the basis of target organisms inhibitor of protein synthesis is categories as follows- 1. Acting only on prokaryotes 2. Acting on prokaryotes and Eukaryotes 3. Acting only on Eukaryotes Mechanism of Protein synthesis inhibitors Protein synthesis, a core biological process, occurs at the ribosomal … Read more

Proteins – Structure, Properties, Type, Denaturation, Functions

Proteins Definition, Properties, Structure, Classification, Functions

Proteins are the largest macromolecules in biology, found throughout every cell. They are also the most adaptable organic molecule in living system and is found in a many various kinds that range in size from small polymers to huge peptides. Proteins are polymers composed of amino acids, which are connected by peptide bonds. Proteins, the protein building blocks are the naturally occurring twenty amino acids. Proteins are, therefore, the multimers made up of amino acids.

Classification of Protein On the Basis of Structure, Composition, Functions

Classification of Protein

What is Protein? Classification of protein On the Basis of Structure 1. Fibrous protein Fibrous proteins are a distinct category of proteins characterized by their elongated or fiber-like structure. These proteins are primarily found in animals and play specific roles in structural support. Therefore, understanding their nature, structure, and function is essential for a comprehensive … Read more

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) – Structure, Properties, Functions, Deficiency

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) - Structure, Properties, Functions, Deficiency

What is Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)? Definition of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Vitamin B1, also known as thiamine, is a water-soluble vitamin essential for the metabolism of glucose and amino acids in the body. It plays a critical role in energy production and is vital for the proper function of the nervous system. Thiamine is naturally found … Read more

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) – Structure, Properties, Functions, Deficiency

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) - Structure, Properties, Functions, Deficiency

What is Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)? Definition of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble essential nutrient found in various foods, primarily in citrus fruits. It plays a crucial role in tissue repair, collagen synthesis, and acts as an antioxidant, protecting cells from damage. Humans must obtain it … Read more

Vitamin K – Structure, Properties, Biological roles and Deficiency

Vitamin K - Structure, Properties, Biological roles and Deficiency

What is Vitamin K? Definition of Vitamin K Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin essential for the synthesis of proteins involved in blood coagulation and bone health. It is naturally found in green leafy vegetables, certain animal foods, and is also produced by gut bacteria. Properties of vitamin K Different forms of vitamin K Vitamin … Read more

Vitamin E – Structure, Functions, Synthesis, Deficiency

Vitamin E - Structure, Functions, Synthesis, Deficiency

What is Vitamin E? Definition of Vitamin E Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant essential for human health that protects cell membranes from damage by reactive oxygen species and plays a role in immune function, skin health, and vision. It encompasses a group of eight compounds, including four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Chemical structures of … Read more

Vitamin D – Structure, Functions, Synthesis, Mechanism, Deficiency

Vitamin D - Structure, Functions, Synthesis, Mechanism, Deficiency

What is Vitamin D? Definition of Vitamin D Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid that plays a crucial role in calcium absorption in the gut, promoting bone health and regulating various other biological functions. It can be naturally obtained from sunlight exposure, certain foods, and supplements. Once ingested or synthesized in the skin, it undergoes … Read more

Vitamin A – Structure, Functions, Properties, Source and deficiency

Vitamin A - Structure, Functions, Properties, Source and deficiency

The retinoids, a group of molecules related to the dietary retinol  (vitamin A) , are essential for vision and reproduction, growth and the maintenance of epithelial tissue. They also play an essential part in the immune system. Retinoic acid, which is derived by oxidation of retinol plays a major role in the action of the … Read more

Vitamins – Classification, Source, Importance, Example

Vitamins - Classification, Source, Importance, Example

What are Vitamins? Definition of Vitamins Vitamins are organic molecules essential in small amounts for an organism’s proper metabolic function, which are typically obtained through the diet as they cannot be synthesized by the organism in sufficient quantities. History and nomenclature of Vitamins The history and nomenclature of vitamins have their roots in the early … Read more

What is Lock and Key Model? – Mechanism, Advantages, Limitations

Lock and Key Model Mechanism

What is Lock and Key Model? The Lock and Key Model Concept The “Lock and Key Model” is a fundamental concept in enzymology, introduced by Emil Fischer in 1899. This model provides an analogy to explain the specificity exhibited by enzymes during their interactions with substrates. In this analogy, the enzyme is likened to a … Read more

What is Induced Fit Model? – Mechanism, Advantages, Limitations

Mechanism of Induced fit model

What is Induced Fit Model? Evidences Supporting Induced Fit Model The Induced Fit Model has garnered significant attention in the realm of biochemistry, and various pieces of evidence support its validity. This model posits that proteins, including enzymes, are not static or rigid structures. Instead, they exhibit dynamic properties, allowing them to adapt and change … Read more

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