Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR): Principle, Methods
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Laboratory Tests

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR): Principle, Methods

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) can be described as a commonly used test used to detect non-specific signs of inflammation result of infection cancers, or certain autoimmune disorders. It is defined as the rate that Red Blood Cells (RBCs) accumulate over an hour.

Types of Blood Collection Tubes and Their uses
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Laboratory Tests

Types of Blood Collection Tubes and Their uses

Evacuated Tubes that are used for blood collection for different laboratory tests are made up of tubes in variable sizes, and color-coded tops to indicate tube contents. The majority of blood collection tubes contain an ingredient that either speeds up the blood's clotting (clot activator) or stops blood from becoming clot-free (anticoagulant). The following list lists the most frequently utilized blood collection tubes, along with their additives, and their uses in lab:

Widal Test Principle, Procedure, Result, Advantages, Limitation
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Laboratory Tests

Widal Test Principle, Procedure, Result, Advantages, Limitation

The Widal test is an agglutination test that determines any antibodies present in the patient's serum that are generated against the causal agents of the enteric febrile illness (Salmonella Typhi, and Salmonella paratyphi B, A as well as C).

Nagler Reaction - Lecithinase Test
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Nagler Reaction – Lecithinase Test

Nagler's Reaction or Lecithinase test is a test in biochemistry used to detect organisms that produce the phospholipases (lecithinases) e.g. Clostridium perfringens. Its alpha (a) toxin from C. perfringens exhibits the phospholipase enzyme activity, which aids in the distinction between C. perfringens and the other Clostridium species that generate the enzyme lecithinase (C.baratti, C.absonum, C.bifermantans, C.sordelli, and C.novyi) through neutralization of lecithin C activity with an antitoxin.

Elek test Principle, Procedure, Result
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Elek test Principle, Procedure, Result

can be described as an test of immunoprecipitation (immunodiffusion) test that determines what specific strain of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae is toxic.

Stokes Disc Diffusion Method Principle, Procedure, Result.
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Laboratory Tests

Stokes Disc Diffusion Method Principle, Procedure, Result.

Stokes disc diffusion method isn't as well-standardized as Kirby-Bauer's method and is utilized in labs especially where the exact amount of antimicrobial present in discs isn't known because of the difficulty in getting discs and correctly storing them or when other requirements needed for the Kirby-Bauer method cannot be fulfilled.

Study of Chlamydomonas and Volvox by using Whole mount
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Study of Chlamydomonas and Volvox by using Whole mount

Chlamydomonas are single-celled green flagellates while Volvox is a part of colonial phytoflagellate that develops a hollow spheroid with several thousand cells enclosed in its mucilaginous wall.

Study ofStudy of Aspergillus by using Temporary Mount Aspergillus by using Temporary Mount
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Laboratory Tests

Study of Aspergillus by using Temporary Mount Technique

The Lactophenol Cotton Blue solution stains the chitinous cell wall of the fungal cell, which makes them different from the surrounding environments and can easily distinguishable. LCB is made of three main components such as Phenol, Lactic acid, and Cotton blue.

Isolation of Microorganism From Air
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Laboratory Tests

Isolation of Microorganism From Air

The microbial content of the outer atmosphere is changing with the season, it contains various pollen, algae, mosses, grains, spores of fungi, ferns, bacteria, and viruses.